GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMS. By H. P. CURTIS

GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMS. By H. P. CURTIS

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Textile Mercury Handbooks.

GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMS. By H. P. CURTIS, Member of, the Council of the Textile Institute. Member of the Association of Cotton Manufacturers, U.S.A.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY Col. F. R. McCONNEL, President of the Textile Institute.

PUBLISHED: MANCHESTER:
MARSDEN & COMPANY, LIMITED. 1921.

PREFACE.
This Glossary has been compiled with a view to place the common terms used in the cotton trade, and particularly in Manchester, in a convenient form for reference. The descriptions are given in language as plain as possible, so that tradesmen, students, and others who are not conversant with the technical words of the textile trade can easily recognise the fabrics. It is also hoped that buyers in the various foreign and colonial markets will derive some benefit from this collection.

The work was first printed in " The Textile Mercury," beginning in the issue, of May 31st, 1919, and met with such appreciation that the proprietors of that journal decided to publish the whole series in book form. My sincere thanks are tendered to them for their most careful labours, and to the Editor of the "Textile Mercury" for his valuable assistance and advice.

HARRY P. CURTIS.
Dunrobin, Romiley

INTRODUCTION.
Handy books of reference in connection with the Textile Trades are by no means too abundant, and this Glossary must be welcomed as. a useful addition to their number and for it I would bespeak a hearty reception. To young salesmen especially it should be valuable, presenting as it does in an accessible form information which is usually only obtained after years of experience. The Glossary is indeed based on careful notes made by the author, Mr. Curtis, during the last twenty years, as the various technical terms came from time to time to his notice.

In addition to the intrinsic value of the Glossary, the volume should have a special value of its own as an example of persistent effort carried to a successful end, while the convenient insertion of blank pages should be an incentive to all readers to keep the information continuously up to date.

F. R. McCONNEL.

17th August, 1921.

GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMS

ARAGA OR MANILLA HEMP-
A fibre obtained from the leaf stalks of the " mussa textilis," a plant found native in the Philippine Islands. It is strong, has great durability, varies from 40in. to 80in. in length, yellowish-white in colour, and has a lustrous appearance. It is light but rather stiff in handle. In India the inner fibres of the leaf stalk are much used for making fine cloths, the outer and coarser fibres being used in the manufacture of matting for floor coverings, cordage, canvas, etc.

The fibre (fine quality) is also used as weft in some fabrics for upholstery, chiefly on account of its colour and lustre. There are many varieties, ranging from fine to coarse obtained from the several species of banana and pineapple plants. Manilla hats are made from these fibres.

It is a tall plant, growing from 16 to 22 feet, and has a stem up to 12in. diameter. This is one of the most important fibres cultivated in the tropics.

ACTUAL-
A term used to indicate that the particulars given are to be “actual” and not "nominal." The cotton trade is probably the only trade where the necessity arises to use these terms. In all other textile trades 30 inches wide means 30 in. wide but in the cotton trade it may mean “nominal" or "actual" namely; 29in. or 30in. All the particulars required to enable a manufacturer to quote for a cloth may mean either of these terms. For instance, 30/116, 19 x 19, 36/40 should mean 30 inches 116 yards, 19 ends and 19 picks per quarter inch, 36's twist 40's weft. But different makers would read this differently. One maker may quote for actual while another may think nominal particulars are meant, and may quote for 29in. 116 yards, 72in. x72in., 38/42, or 36/42. To ensure the required cloth is being quoted for a shipper would send his enquiry on as follows:

30 full 116yds, 76 x 76 full, 36/40 actual.

AEROPLANE FABRICS-
Plain weave cloths, used for making wings of aeroplanes. The cloth must be well woven, and practically without faults. The widths vary from 36 to 56 inches, and up to 160 ends x 160 picks per inch. A fair quantity has been woven 90/2 reed, 100 picks from 3/120's warp and weft, Sea Islands cotton.

Linen yarns made from the best quality of flax have been used in great quantities for the manufacture of these fabrics. Often these cloths are boiled after being woven, which process removes impurities not required, and gives greater strength with a minimum weight. Finished cloths are afterwards put through a process known as " doping."

AGARIC-
A fabric made from loop yarns giving a terry effect and used in the China trade.

AGAVE FIBRE, OR PITA, OR ALOE-
A fibre obtained from the leaf of the "Agave Americana." White to pale yellow in colour, short in length, hard in feel, is very strong, has much elasticity, and is wavy. Used in the manufacture of a lace for decorative uses, and for cordage.

ALBATROSS-
An open texture cloth with fancy weave, made from worsted warp and weft, used for dress fabrics. Also applied to a plain woven cotton cloth of soft fine yarns, piece-dyed black and other solid colours, used for decorations.

ALHAMBRA QUILTS-
The cheapest quilt made, and very popular. Made all cotton with bold designs. Jacquard machines are used. The width of the cloth varies from 100 to 108 inches, and length about 84 inches. Standard cloths are:

1. 108in. x 84in., 56/2 reed, 2/26's figuring warp, 2/40's ground warp, 36 picks, 6's condenser weft.

2. 108in. x 84in., 56/2 reed, 2/16's figuring and 24's ground warps, 30 picks, 4's or 6's weft, 100 yards of cloth from 120 yards figure, 105 ground.

The coloured figuring ends vary from 1 to 4 in a mail of the harness, with one ground end to each mail. Two beams are used, one for the coloured warp drawn through the jacquard harness, the other for ground warp drawn through the healds.

ALIZARINE REDS-
A term used in the West African trade to denote cloths 32 in. to 36 in. wide, 20 yards long, made from grey and red yarns in the warp and grey weft. About 16x15 per ¼ in., and 20's grey, 24's alizarine red, 24's weft. The alizarine red yarn is fast, and similar to Turkey red in shade and properties. Usually half colour and half grey yarn is used in the warp, the designs being bold wide stripes and plain weave.

ALPACA OR EXTRACT WOOL-
Alpaca "wool" weft is obtained by disintegrating fabrics made of mixture materials, and may contain animal and vegetable fibres. The term is also applied to a lustre fabric woven with a cotton warp and alpaca wool weft, plain weave. When dyed in solid colours it is cross-dyed, the cotton warp being dyed before weaving, and the piece is piece-dyed after leaving the loom. The warp is usually 2/80's Egyptian.

ALPACA WOOL-
This is obtained from the domesticated alpaca, and is variously white, reddish, or black ; fibre 6 to 8 inches long, with a uniform diameter, slightly wavy, smooth, and fine. It is chiefly used for ladies' dress cloths and lounge jackets.

AMAZONS-
A good quality cloth, wool warp and worsted weft, 5-end satin weave, with twill running to the left. Twist of warp is to the right and of weft to the left which gives a smart cloth. Made in Bradford. 80 ends, 44 to 56 picks per inch, from 2/60 botany warp, 40's or 42's worsted weft. Widths 46 to 56 inches. When finished the shrinkage is about 10 to 12 per cent in warp and 12 to 16 in weft.

AMERICANS-
Low grey cloths, 30 inches wide, 36 to 40 yards, 52 ends, 44 picks, 27's twist, 18's weft, sized twist and woven with headings of a pick or two of colour such as 2 picks blue. Bacup manufacturers make a large quantity. This cloth is shipped in the loom state to the West African and China markets.

AMERICAN SHEETINGS-
The cloth described as "Americans" is also known under this style, but it is not correct as a sheeting is a twill cloth and very much wider. The term "Cabot" is also given to the cloth (see Cabot).

AMERICAN TWILL, WRONGLY CALLED SHALLOON-
The name given to the ordinary twill weave 2/2 by the American traders. "Shalloon" applied to this twill is not correct, since a shalloon is a very good quality woollen cloth (see Shalloon), whereas American twills are cotton fabrics.

ANGOLA-
Plain or twill fabric, woven from a cotton warp and an Angola yarn weft. Principally used as shirting cloths for the home trade.

ANGOLA YARN-
A yarn spun from a mixture of wool and cotton, generally 80 per cent. wool, 20 per cent. cotton. This quality is known as "80/20 “angola” The percentage varies.

ANGORA OR "MOHAIR”-
The hair or wool of the goat of that name. More generally known as mohair. The animal originally had its home in Asia Minor. About 1858 it was introduced into Cape Colony, from which country we now get a large supply. The natives of Asia Minor made shawls from the wool, which resembled Cashmere shawls. In colour it is white, average length of hair is 6 to 8 inches, and has a curly structure. It is a very useful fibre, and largely used by the manufacturers of Astrakhan, wool crepons, plushes, and cashmeres; also used in many silk cloths. The French use the fibre in a cloth named "poil de chevre" which has a fine spun silk coloured warp and angora weft. Bradford imitates this cloth with a fine cotton warp. It has more lustre than wool, but is not so warm. Sir Titus Salt, by introducing the manufacture of goods made from mohair into the town of Saltaire, raised Saltaire into a town from a village.

ANGUILLA COTTON-
A variety grown in the West Indies, and very similar to Sea Islands. From this variety the latter is said to owe its origin. It is not much grown at the present time.

APRON CLOTH, APRON CHECKS-
Plain woven coloured cloths in stripes and checks. Colours are usually blues and blacks, with a side border differently coloured of bolder stripe or of figuring worked, on the dhootie principle; 34 to 38 in. wide, 64 ends and picks to 72 ends and picks, 28's to 36's warp and weft.

ARGENTINAS-
Also known as Austrias or Austrian Twill. This cloth is a jean, 2 x 1 weave, made 44 in. 90 yds., (LS) 72 x 84, 34's/20's, 33 ½ lb. super weft. A large trade is done in the cloth with the Near East markets. Shipped in the dyed state, principally black.

ARMURE-
A name applied to weaves of an irregular or broken character, giving a pebbled surface. It is more pronounced than a crepe. Woven in a dobby loom from 12 to 20 staves.

ARMY GREYS-
A heavy plain cloth used for army shirts. Also known as " silver greys." Generally made from all cotton, but a few cloths have had about 5 to 10 per cent. of wool in the weft. After weaving, they are soft finished and brush raised. A standard cloth is 30 in., 12o yards, 44 ends, 48 picks, 2/18's twist, 12's lavender-dyed weft.

ARROWHEAD TWILLS (See Herringbone Twills)-
Another name for the herringbone style of twill.

ARTIFICIAL COTTON-
This is prepared from the barked trunks of pine trees by the reduction of thin shavings into wood-wool, which is washed, then acted upon by steam, and heated with caustic soda under pressure, being thus converted into cellulose. This paste-like substance is reheated and pressed through a form of sieve into threads. By treating with ammonia and sprinkling with water these threads are made flexible and as easy to work as cotton. The wood is not abundant, and the cost of production is very heavy, which tends to prevent this fibre becoming a commercial success. [SG note. This was rayon and eventually became the basis for a large industry. Practiced at James Nelson in Nelson in 1930s. One type was called Lustrafil.]

ARTIFICIAL SILKS- “ART SILKS”
Several varieties are manufactured, such as " Chardonnet Silk ... .. Paris Silk," "Viscose Silk," "Vandura Silk," etc- all of them termed " silks," although not silks at all, but substitutes. The term "silk" applied to fabrics made of "artificial silk " is now illegal, except when used with the word "artificial." One preparation is cellulose prepared from cotton by the action of nitric acid, which converts the cotton into nitro-cellulose, and, by dissolving this in ether or alcohol and forcing the liquid through very fine holes in a platinum plate, threads are formed as fine as 1-250th inch diameter. A very lustrous fibre results, which is much used as ornament with cotton and wool warps.

ARTIFICIAL SILK COUNTS-
The number of deniers that 476 metres (or 520 yards) weighs gives the counts. There are 533 ½ deniers in one ounce, or 8,533 ½ deniers to one pound avoirdupois. [SG note. ?. I make it 8536 to the pound]

ARTIFICIAL WOOL-
Is really a recovered waste product, and has grown to an important branch of the textile industry. A large quantity of cheap suits are made from these yarns, of which there are several varieties, known as mungo, shoddy, extract wool, etc. They are manufactured from rags and waste materials containing wool. Cotton, and even silk is found in some of them. (See also under Mungo, Shoddy, Extract Wool.)

ASBESTOS (MOUNTAIN FLAX)-
Is a mineral substance resisting the action of fire, and is the only mineral utilised commercially as a textile fibre. Canadian asbestos is the most valuable for textile purposes, as it gives a curly fibre which is more easy to spin into threads than any other. It is a long, white, lustrous fibre, difficult to spin alone, so a little cotton is mixed with it, the cotton eventually being burnt away. Used for making fireproof curtains, for packing purposes, gloves, clothing for firemen, and workers in furnaces, etc.

ALBERT DIAGONAL-
A fancy twill on 6 shafts, usually 31 inches, 100 yards, 56 ends, 200 picks, 16's warp, 28's weft. A very good velvet weft required, woven in a velvet loom. The rib stands up boldly, and a thick heavy cloth results.

ASTRAKHAN-
A soft, curly, strong wool, obtained from a sheep reared in Astrakhan, Persia, and other Asiatic districts. A cloth of silk and worsted, or all worsted, with a long loosely curled pile, and put on the market as an imitation of real astrakhan. Mohair yarn is largely used. The mohair weft yarn is curled before using, which when cut (similar to velveteen) causes the free ends of the tufts to curl on the face of the cloth. Sometimes the pile is left uncut. A good quality cloth is made 48 in. wide, 48 ends, 150 picks per inch, 2/30's cotton warp, one pick 24's cotton weft, and two picks 8's mohair. A knitted fabric is also on the market as an imitation astrakhan. This is the cheapest method, but does not give the same weight or wearing quality.

ATLAS-
The German, Dutch, Russian, and Danish name for the 5-end satin weave. Also signifies a satin cloth. The term is used to indicate the satin ground weave used in damasks, thus:-the 5-end atlas is the ordinary 5-end satin, and so on to 16-end atlas.

AUSTRIAN TWILL, AUSTRIAS (See ARGENTINAS).

AWNINGS-
Heavy cloths used for shop blinds, garden tents and chairs, etc. Widths vary from 26 inches up to 90 inches and over. Weave generally plain or 2/1 twill. Heavy yarns, 14's or 16's warp, 10's to 16's weft, in broad grey and colour stripes. Colours fast red or blue.

AXMINSTERS, AXMINSTER CARPETS-
Carpets made from hank-dyed yarn with a cut pile surface and any number of colours can be used. Generally woven in one piece to fit any size room, hall, or stairs. The genuine "Axminster" is an oriental fabric woven on a plain loom, and the tufts that form the pattern are produced by hand. Made from linen or jute warp and binding weft, and wool pile weft, the pile being small tufts inserted singly. These carpets were first made in the town of Axminster about 1755.

AXMINSTER PATENT CARPETS-
A machine-made tufted-pile fabric, the tufts showing on the surface above a foundation cloth. The tuft weft is a chenille, and is woven first, then cut. (See Chenille.) This chenille weft is then inserted by hand, the weaver using a different shuttle for each colour. Any number of colours can be used. The chenille is bound into the foundation cloth in several ways. Warp may be linen or cotton. Up to 12 weft threads per inch are made, with 2 to 4 picks of ground per chenille weft pick. The designs may repeat two or three times across the width, but usually extend the full length.

AMNSTER ROYAL CARPET OR MOQUETTE-
Is a chenille weft carpet woven on a patent loom known as the "Crompton-loom, patented in America. It is a good imitation of the hand-woven carpet. This is the Axminster carpet of commercial use.

BACK-
The underside of a cloth as woven in the loom. Some cloths are woven face down for ease in weaving, as, for instance, warp satins in which the lift is 4/1, by weaving face down only one thread is lifted and four remain down.

BACK CLOTH-
An unbleached all-cotton plain cloth, used as a reinforcing cloth for calico printing to support the fabric being printed.

BACKED CLOTHS-
A single texture cloth with extra threads of either warp or weft, generally inferior in quality to the face yarns, and woven so as to show only on the back. Used to add weight to the fabric. This allows a cloth to have a fine face weave, and yet be any desired weight.

BACK-FILLED FINISH-
A system of finishing cloths without the finish appearing on the face. This is done on the "back-filling" mangle, which lays the starch or other finish on one side only and protects the other side. Cloths with a pattern such as piques, coloured stripes, etc., are finished this way to give firmness.

RAFFETAS-
Plain weave cloths, bleached or dyed blue. Blue hafts is the West African term for this style, and are plain cloths dyed blue.

BAFTAS-
The South African term for a varied assortment of plain and simple fancy cloths. Made up in 12 yard lengths.

BAFTS-
Bye name originally applied on the West African coast to nearly all classes of plain and coloured goods when made up in short lengths of 6 yards, 8 yards, and upwards. The term is now usually used only for narrow grey cloths about 27 inches wide, 27 yards long, 60x64, 18's/24's, heavy sized, and shipped both loom state and finished.

BAGS, GUNNY-
See "Cranny."

BAGS, TUBULAR CLOTHS, POCKETS, PILLOW CASES-
Are all types of double cloths, usually woven with tappets similar to Smalley's, or on a dobby loom. A special loom is now made for these fabrics. If one bag only is woven in the width 4 healds are required; if several in the width then 2 extra or 4 extra would be needed to weave the plain between the bags. The warp requires special controlling, as greater tension is necessary when the bottom of the bag is being woven. A pillow case cloth is made 108 ends, 4 in a dent, 120 picks, 24's warp, 16's weft. Ends and picks are total of both folds.

BAIZE-
A heavy woollen cloth made from coarse warp and weft and felted, usually dyed green or red, has a harsh feel, is loosely woven, with a long nap on both sides, and used for coverings for tables, screens, etc. 66 to 68 inches is the general width. [SG note. ‘Felted’ in this context is not true felting but fulling]

BALANCED CLOTH-
A cloth that contains the maximum number of ends and picks per inch of equal counts, such as aeroplane fabrics, where the greatest strength is a necessity.

BALBRIGGAN-
A cotton hosiery style named after the town of that name in Ireland, where it was first made. The name later on was given to knitted underwear of similar quality. To-day it is applied to light-weight flat underwear made from yarn dyed a drab shade.

BALE, COTTON-
A package of raw cotton, weighing for American about 500 lb., Egyptian 700 lb., Brazilian 250 lb., and East Indian 400 lb.

BALINE-
A coarse canvas fabric made from jute, flax, etc., yarns, and used for tailors' linings, upholstery coverings, etc.

BALLING-
Coiling warp sections into balls. Making balls of a finished twine. Winding thread into balls on a special balling machine.

BALL SIZING-
Consists of three processes, sizing, drying, and beaming. Used for coloured warps or for grey warps about 24's and lower that are to be heavy sized, such as for heavy domestics, Wigans, etc. This system gives a leather-like feel to the yarn and cloth, and is much used in the Rochdale district. The yarn is not flattened as it is in tape sizing. For coloured work it is very suitable, owing to the shorter length, various colours, etc.

BALL WARPING-
The oldest system of warping, and not much used to-day. It is used for some coloured work, and where the warps are to be shipped or sold as ball warps. A number of threads are drawn from the warper's bobbins and gathered into a form of rope of untwisted strands. This can be done direct from the bobbins on the old-fashioned warping mill or from sections from the sectional warper.

BALZARINE BROCADES-
A cotton fabric produced by a jacquard with gauze combined with figuring.

BANDA STRIPES-
This is a waste weft cloth made in the Rawtenstall and Rochdale districts. Widths about 50 in. to 54 in. finished. Lengths 10 and 6 yards. Designs all blue and white stripes. Finished with a stiff finish to weigh about 3 ½ lb. for 53 in. 10 yards (56 in. soft). A popular cloth is 56 in., 100 yards (soft), 48 x 40 per inch, 30's / 8's condenser. The twist is heavily sized. Ends per inch vary from 48 to 56, and picks from 36 to 44. Twist nearly always 30's, and weft 7's, 8's, or 9's. The colour is indigo blue.

BANDANNA-
Originated in India as bright coloured handkerchiefs of silk and cotton with spots in white on coloured grounds, chiefly red and blue. The silk styles were made of the finest quality yarns, and were very popular. Bandanna prints for clothing were first produced in Glasgow from cotton yarns, and are now made in many qualities. The term, at present, generally means a fabric in printed styles, whether silk, silk and cotton, or all cotton.

BANG-UP-CORD-
A very heavy fustian cloth of cotton from about 14's warp, 10's weft. Pattern on 12 ends, 12 picks; stitching ends are used, Going out of favour owing to its weight.

BANG-UP LOOM-
Colloquial term for a fast-reed loom used for heavy fabrics.

BARBADOES COTTON-
The original name of American cotton, which was first introduced into America from the islands of the Barbados group. It grows freely in the West Indies, and gives a long staple fibre, is silky, fair colour, and fine quality.

BARLEY-CORN WEAVES-
A style of matt weave, giving small geometrical figures, on 6 x 6, 6 x 8, 8 x 8 ends and picks. Much used as ground weaves, because they give a firmness to the cloth.

BARRAS, DUTCH BARRAS-
A coarse linen fabric similar to sack cloth, first produced in Holland. Not much used to-day.

BARRE,BARRE-
A cross-over stripe cloth with stripes formed by welts from selvedge to selvedge. Either woven or printed.

BARREGE-
A mixture cloth of silk warp and wool weft with an open or gauze weave. Chiefly used as head coverings in religious ceremonies. Imitated recently with cotton warps.

BASTARD REEDS-
Are reeds not in general use, and are made to odd numbers of ends per inch, such as 69 and 71. Still used in the Nelson district for sateens. [see SG note; ‘reed, bastard’]

BAUMGARTEN TAPESTRIES-
Hand-made fabrics from Williamsbridge, New York. Not often seen in England.

BASKET CLOTH-
A cotton fabric of the fancy matt style, with 2, 3, or 4 ends and picks working together of heavy yarns., An, average cloth is made 42 in., 48 ends, 34 picks per inch, 2/20's warp, 8's weft.

BASKET WEAVES-
An extension of the plain weave, both in the length and width, and giving a matt weave; also known as "hopsack weave."

BAST FIBRES-
The fibres obtained from the inner bark of flax, hemp, jute, ramie, and other plants and shrubs.

BASTISTE, BATISTE-
Is a cloth of French origin. The term is now applied to a light Swiss finished cloth, made from ecru coloured yarns when cotton, and grey yarns when flax is used. It is very fine in quality, and as many as 15 yards of 32 in. cloth are required to weigh 1 lb. 80's to 100's warp and 100's to 160's weft are used in the cotton variety. A wool batiste is also made.

BAYADERE-
Same as Barre.

BAYEAUX TAPESTRY-
The Bayeaux Tapestry is an historic fabric, supposed to have been the work of Matilda, wife of the Conqueror, and of which a photograph can be seen in the Kensington Museum. The term is applied to tapestries of present-day make which are similar in colouring to the historic one.

BAYETAS-
The Spanish name for baize, which see.

BAYS-
A cloth very similar to baize, but lighter. This is an old-time name.

BEAM-
Warp Beam: The roller upon which the warp yarn is wound, and fitted in the loom at the back.

Cloth Beam: A roller fitted in the front of the loom, upon which the cloth is wound when weaving.

Breast Beam: Is a bar fixed in front of the loom with the purpose of acting as a guide for the cloth on to the cloth beam.

Back Beam: Is a fixed bar at the back of the loom, which guides the yarn from the warp beam to the healds. [SG note. Also used for the large spinner’s beams in the set of beams on the back of a tape slasher in some areas.]

BEAMING-
The process of putting warp yarn on a beam. One of the most important operations in weaving, and yet one of the simplest. After spinning the yarn the spinner puts it on a beam when required for warps, and this is his last operation. Beams must he well made and, tight. Very faulty cloth results if the yarn does not come off the beam regularly.

BEAM WARPING-
The transferring of yarn from warper's bobbins on to a large flanged. beam in the form of a wide sheet. Used when preparing back beams for sizing on the slasher when several beams are run together. Each beam contains up to 500 threads with a length of 15,000 yards or more. If four beams are used of 500 threads then 4x500=2,000 threads or ends on the weaver's or back beam. This is termed a “set”.

Beam warping is also used for making beams of simple stripes in coloured work.


BEATING-UP-
The third primary movement of the loom when making cloth, and is the action of the reed as it drives each pick of weft to the fell of the cloth. The three primary movements are shedding, picking, and beating-up.

BEARSKIN, DREADNAUGHT, FEARNAUGHT-
American terms for an overcoating cloth of shaggy face. It is not applied to any particular cloth.

BEATRACE TWILL-
A 5-shaft twill weave cloth with a welt face used for both shipping and home trade as a lining, generally dyed in black. 56 in. 90 yds. (Ls), 72 ends, 120 picks, 36's/34's twist way super weft.

BEAVER OR CASTOR-
An overcoating cloth with one face sheared, heavily milled, and nap raised finish. It has a soft handle, and made of fine grade wool as an imitation of beaver's fur. Now used for making hats.

BEAVERTEEN-
A heavy twill, all cotton, of about 2/16's or 2/18's warp, and 14's to 16's weft. Of the fustian variety, with an uncut pile, dyed tan or light brown shades, has a short nap, and designed to stand hard wear as clothing. Usually woven 3 face to 1 back picks.

BEDFORD CORDS-
Fabrics having cords or ribs in the direction of the warp, produced by interweaving the weft in plain or twill order, with alternate groups of warp threads. The ribs may be emphasised by the addition of wadding or stuffing
warp threads. Generally woven in dobby looms. All cotton, all wool, or mixed.

BEER (BIER)-
A term denoting 40 threads of warp drawn in 20 dents of the reed. A warp is said to consist of so many beers.

BEETLE, BEETLING MACHINE-
A machine employed to give the "Beetle Finish to cloths by delivering a rapid succession of blows from wooden hammers upon the cloth wound upon rollers or cylinders.

BEIGE-
The American term for a dress fabric made from a print or grandrelle yarn. A dress fabric, twill weave, made of fibres dyed before spinning. Different coloured fibres may be mixed resulting in a mottled yarn.

BENGALINE-
A silk fabric with cords across the piece as in a poplin. The cords are of wool, cotton, or silk. If all silk, known as Bengaline de Soie. A cotton bengaline is made of all cotton, with a 2/60's warp and 6's or 8's weft. Mercerised finish.

BENGAL STRIPES-
All cotton cloth, matting weave, white and blue stripes, usually bleached yarns, and the cloth soft finished. 34 in. to 36 in. wide, and made up to 10 or 12 yard ends. 60 ends, 36 picks, 24's white, 4 ends, 20's opal blue per inch, 14's or 16's weft.

BERGAMOT-
A cheap tapestry fabric from Italy, with a cotton or flax warp and goat's weft, or mixed weft.

BETILLES-
A Swiss muslin fabric woven from bleached yarns with an openwork design formed by empty dents in the reed. Sometimes figured or ornamented by colour yarns. Largely shipped to the Philippines in 21 in. to 41 in. widths.

BIANCAVILLE COTTON-
A variety of cotton grown in Italy from American seed.

BIARRITZ CLOTH-
A reversible woollen cloth with a weft cord stripe and warp repp. The weave is a weft float over 4 warp ends, and each alternate stripe bound plain on the face, the other being bound on the back.

BILLIARD CLOTH OR FELT-
The best quality of felt made, and has a soft, smooth, and elastic surface. Owing to its excellent quality, the temperature variations do not change its firmness. Generally fast dyed green. [SG note. More accurately a fulled cloth, not a felt. See fulling]

BINDER, OR BINDING WARP-
The back warp of double cloths. The interior warp of pile fabrics, used to bind the pile threads together.

BINDING CLOTHS-
Bookbinders' cloth of muslin character, dyed, and embossed. Very stiffly finished.

BIRD'S-EYE PATTERN-
A small design based on the diamond principle, with a small dot in the centre of each figure. Used for dobby and jacquard effects as a ground weave.

BISHOP'S LAWN-
A Swiss finished light muslin of a weight greater than ordinary mulls. It is really a heavy mull.

BLANKETS (COTTON)-
Plain or twill weave cotton cloths, 60 inches and upwards in width, and 80 inches and upwards in length. Made from coarse yarns. Very coarse reeds are used. A soft spun coarse weft from 1's to 8's counts is usual, sometimes a "bump" yarn weft. Special shuttles are required to take the large or "jumbo" cops. Coloured weft headings are put in at each end. The fabrics are raised on both sides by passing several times through the raising machine.

BLANKET TWILL-
The ordinary 2/2 twill, and is, probably the commonest weave used in the woollen trade. It is known under other names in various districts, such as serge, cassimere, shalloon, two-and-two twill.


BLEACHING-
The series of operations through which grey cloths pass in order to whiten them. In the early history of bleaching the process was carried out in open fields, and it was only possible to bleach fabrics in the summer months. All fibres have some colour, and to obtain a pure white cloth this natural colouring matter has to be bleached out.

BLEEDING CHECKS-
A plain weave cloth made from coloured yarns in large cheek designs with a loose dyed yarn over checking. During the finishing process this loose dye bleeds off and tints the fabric.

BLISS TWILL-
A 4/2 twill weave used in the making of whipcord fabrics. The firm of Messrs. W. Bliss and Sons introduced the weave.

BLOCK PRINTING-
A process of printing fabrics by hand with, the aid of wooden blocks. The pattern is either engraved on the wood or built up by means of copper wire. The cloth is stretched over a firm level table, generally of stone, and the block dipped into colour and then impressed upon the cloth. Each colour requires a separate block.

BLOTCH CHECKS-
A favourite and old pattern, very popular among the better class of West African natives for dress purposes. The design effect is obtained from a printed warp, and looks as if a large quantity of deep blue ink has been splashed on it in big blotches. The checking is 2 white, 2 blue, the warp also being 2 blue and 2 white. A good quality is 30 in., 20 yards, 9's blue, 40's white warps, 11's blue, 32's white wefts. Usual 3 green, 1 red heading each end. Finished stiff finish. Made in Radcliffe and Rochdale.

BLUE DUNGAREE-
A heavy cloth used for overalls woven in the 2 x 1 twill weave from dyed warp and weft yarns, narrow widths. A sample cloth is 28 in. wide, 68 ends 52 picks,20's warp 20's weft.

BOARDY FEEL-
A much used term indicating that a cloth is hard and boardy to the feel. It is only found in heavy sized or finished fabrics, and is directly opposite to a "clothy feel."

BOBBINET (BOBBIN-NET)-
A machine-made cotton lace net produced by the bobbinet frame. Heathcote, about the year 1809, seems to be the first inventor of this frame, which has since had many improvements, though the principle remains.

BODY BRUSSELS CARPETS-
The American term for the Brussels carpet in which the worsted yarn is woven through the body of the fabric from back to front, and is actually a compound part of the cloth. In England the carpet is known simply as “Brussels carpet”.

BOILED-OFF SILK-
Silk which has had the natural gum removed by boiling in soap solution.

BOKHARA COTTON-
A coarse cotton grown in Turkestan and other districts of Central Asia. It is principally used locally.

BOMBAZINE-
A black fabric, first made in Norwich 450 years ago and used for mourning. It is now made from a silk warp and worsted weft in a fine open twill weave.

BOOK-FOLD-
A finisher's term to indicate that the cloth has to be folded in such a way as to open like a book from the centre, with the folds resembling the leaves of a book.

BOOK MUSLIN-
A very light cotton fabric of gauze weave, one end crossing one. Stiff finished. Used as binding cloths by bookbinders, also as linings for cheap clothing. The term is also applied to a coarse leno cloth shipped to India, about 35 inches wide, 10 yards long, 36x28 per inch, from 32 , s/16's, and bleached and finished stiffly.

BORNEO STRIPES-
A matting cloth made from bleached yarn with a red stripe of 2 ends colour every half inch. Usually 36 inches 6 yards, 72x32, 20's/16's. Firmly finished, and shipped to South America.

BOTANY-
The finest of worsted yarns, and used for the best fabrics. A term applied to fine Australian wools of best quality.

BOUCLE-
An imitation astrakhan or cloth having knots, loops, or curls on the surface.

BOUDEKIN OR BOLDEKIN-
An ancient term used for silk brocades in the Persian trade. Rarely used to-day.

BOURETTE-
A dress material in which a rough surface is produced by using lumpy knotted yarns. The roughness is in the warp only, and thus forms stripes.

BOWEDS COTTON-
Is Uplands cotton from Georgia, Virginia, and Alabama. Principally used for a good type of weft yarn from 30's to 40's. Usually very clean.

BRAZILIAN COTTON-
Is a harsh, wiry cotton, and used for mixing with certain wools for the hosiery trade.

BRIGHTON WEAVES-
A honeycomb effect formed from a diamond style of weave of a more complex form than honeycombs. They are not reversible. The smallest pattern is on 8 x 8 ends and picks, and as many as 16 ends and picks are used.

BRILLIANTE-
Originally a brocade with a soft finish, made from cotton yarns. To-day they are also made in dobby looms. The designs are simple spot effects. The cloth is bleached or dyed. A large quantity is shipped to Egypt, India, and other Eastern markets. 28 to 30 inches wide, 14 lb. for 105 yards, 56 ends, 52 picks, 36's warp, 24's weft, 12 to 14 staves.

BRILLIANTINE-
A dress cloth of cotton warp and lustre worsted weft; about 24's cotton, 24's worsted. Generally of a plain weave, but jacquard designs are sometimes used. A soft calender finish is put on the cloth.

BRISE OR ELASTIC FINISH-
A finish for muslin, jaconets, etc., and is a special one to keep the fabric soft and clothy, leaving yarns round. Drying is done on stenters, and the cloth moving all the time.

BROACH COTTON-
An Indian variety, with a fairly white and good staple. One of the best produced in India. Has a soft fibre and is best used for 14's and coarser warp yarns, and 22's and coarser weft.

BROADCLOTH-
A term that in many districts was used to indicate garments worn by the clergy. It is a stout wool cloth, very soft and silky, and has an even nappy satin finish. Twill or plain weave, wider than 27 inches, and fine reed and pick. Dyed good black or indigo.

BROCADES-
Originally meant a silk cloth with figuring threads of gold and silver. At the present time it indicates a figured fabric of single texture, with the figure developed or bound in a more or less irregular order, and the ground formed by a weave of a simple character. Cotton brocades have only one warp and one weft. Silk and upholstery brocades may have several wefts of different colours. Name is derived from the Spanish " brocade " (to figure).

BROCATELLE-
A heavy cloth used as a tapestry. It has a rich coloured raised figure of silk warp and weft interwoven satin order on a ground fabric formed by a linen weft and a special binder warp. The term is also applied to a quilt made with a coarse weft and two warps of different colours. The warps change places to make the figure.

BROCHE-
The French word for brocade. A loom embroidered fabric with swivel figuring.

BROCHE SATIN-
This is a cloth with a jacquard figure on a satin ground.

BROKEN ENDS-
A weaving fault caused by threads of warp breaking whilst in the loom. This is a serious defect when the cloth has a pattern or when coloured ends are used.

BROKEN FACE-
A term applied to sateens made so that the weave effect is broken up. The face is broken by using weft way weft, and having the twill to the right, or by using twist way weft and twill to left.

BROKEN PICKS-
Caused by the weft breaking as the shuttle passes through the shed, or by the shuttle running to the last few feet of weft. Weavers by finding the pick can remedy this fault.

BROKEN SATEEN-
The sateen weave with the twill reversed.

BROKEN TWILL-
A weave in which the twill line is broken by a deviation from a regular step, as in the satin weave.

BROWN SHEETING-
Plain grey cloths, unfinished, of all weights, and 30 inches wide and upwards. A general term.

BROWN SHIRTING-
Plain grey cotton cloths, 26 to 40 inches wide, sized warps, and in all weights. A general term.

BRUSSELS CARPETS-
Uncut pile fabrics, in which the worsted yarn used forms part of the fabric itself as well as figure, and is woven through the cloth from back to face. These carpets are known as 3-frame, 4-frame, 5-frame, etc., carpets. Each frame has a capacity of 256 bobbins of one colour, so in a 5-frame fabric there are five colours, and in each dent of the reed there aye five pile threads and two ground threads. The 5-frame Brussels thus means five colours are used for figuring. Round wires are used (up to nine per inch) to form the pile, and these are withdrawn from the side of the cloth.

BUCKSKIN WEAVE-
The 8-end sateen weave, but each warp end is lifted, for two picks instead of one.

RUCKRAM-
A strong linen cloth, plain weave, stiffened with a flour paste, china clay, and glue. A very low open texture cotton cloth used for hat linings, and is very heavily finished. About 42 inches wide, 14 ends, 14 picks per inch, 8's warp, 12's weft.

BUCIS-
A fine cotton sarong with one border. Two pieces are usually sewn together, giving a double width cloth with borders at each selvedge.

BUGLE-
Another name for "Bugis."

BULL-HIDE, OR REFORMER-
A very heavy cotton fabric woven on fustian looms. It has a warp face with a twill weave. Each warp end floats over six picks. The cloth is pile finished. Much used for cheap hats.

BUMP YARNS-
Cotton yarns below 4's counts, that is, where less than 4x840 = 3,360 yards to go to make a pound. The counts are denoted by the number of yards per ounce. Thus, 60 yards per ounce=60's bump.

BUNGOES-
A local name in Scotland, and indicates a Scotch-woven shawl. The term is often applied to fabrics imitating the real article.

BUNTING-
A plain, loose, even thread weave of mohair wool, and used for flags. The fabric dyes with brilliant effects. The cotton bunting is a low make of cloth from poor yarns, and is an entirely wrong term.

BURLINGHAM-
The trade name for a sack cloth of Oriental character.

BURLAPS-
A plain, coarse, heavy yarn cloth, used for wrappers, and upholstery. Generally made from jute, hemp, or flax yarn.

BURNLEY PRINTERS-
A plain weave cotton cloth for printing. Also shipped grey to many markets. Burnley printers are not considered of as good yarns or make as Cheshire printers. The Cheshire makers generally spin their own yarns which are of the counts desired, and give the actual reed and pick. Burnley makers do not spin, but may buy any yarn; thus a character is not given to their cloths. A standard Burnley cloth is 32 inches, 116 yards/l.s., 64 x 64, 36/38.

BUTCHER'S LINEN-
A coarse, heavy, plain weave cloth of linen.

CABLED YARNS-
By this term is meant the redoubling of doubled threads. In a 6-cord yarn three twofold threads will be doubled or cabled together. The 6-cord Yarn could be made by using six single threads but the resulting cabled yarn would not be as satisfactory as when twofold thread's are used.

CABOTS-
A coarse plain weave grey cloth, usually 30 to 32 inches wide, 40 yards long, 48 ends, 40 picks, 20's/22's, 12 lb. Yarns, ends, and picks vary. The cloth is shipped grey to the Levant. Generally heavily sized warp is used. The American manufacturers make a similar cloth in 36 inches, 40 yards, and ship it as "American sheeting" to China and other markets.

CALENDERING-
The finishing of cloth by means of heated rollers, the cloth being under pressure between the rollers or bowls. The heat is applied by gas or steam. The number of bowls varies according to the kind of finish required. such as dull, glazed, watered, moiré, etc.

CALICO-
In Lancashire this name is applied generally to any plain weave cloth coarser than muslin. Originally meant a printed cotton cloth. The name came from Calicut (India), where the art of colour printing was first practised. Printed calicoes now generally pass under the name of chintz.

CALICO-BACK-
A plain weave back; also known as " tabby-back."

CALICO SHIRTING-
Plain weave fabrics, printed or bleached, and intended for shirts.

CALIMANCOES-
Highly glazed cloth with broad coloured stripes, plain weave, usually 25 inches wide, and used for skirtings.

CAMBRIC-
A light plain cloth, fine reed, pick, and yarns, such as 100x80, 60's/80's. Both American and, Egyptian yarns are used. It is difficult to say where a muslin ends and a cambric begins because of their great similarity. Cambric originally meant a fine linen cloth.

CAMBRIC (FRENCH)-
A very fine fabric, without any weaving faults, used for neckties and scarves.

CAMBRIC (IRISH)-
A true cambric, being an all-linen fabric, plain weave. Used for underclothing and many dress purposes.

CAMBRIC (KID-FINISHED)-
A soft finished fabric used for dress linings in various colours and weights.

CAMEL'S HAIR-
The soft downy hair from the haunches and under part of the camel.

CAMLET-
A fine thin plain weave cloth, woven from camlet yarns, 30 inches, 60 yards, usually dyed bright red. Camlet yarn is spun from lustrous wool, Lincoln or Leicester. The Dutch introduced the cloth, but they used camel hair.

CAMPBELL TWILL, ALSO CALLED MAYO TWILL-
A weave largely used in the woollen trade on 8 ends and 8 picks.

CANICHE-
A curl wool fabric, introduced by the French, giving an effect somewhat similar to the caniche (French poodle).

CANNETTE-
A fine corded dress cloth similar to poplins. Italian make, about 50 inches wide, and shipped to India.

CANTON-
A strong twill cloth, all cotton, grey or bleached, and raised on one side. About 27 to 30 inches wide, and dyed bright colours. The heavier make is the 2-and-2 twill, and the lighter one 2-and-1 twill. It was first shipped to Canton, whence it got its name.

CANTOON-
A very strong fustian woven to give a bold cord on the face and a satin on the back. About 54 ends of 2/16's or 2/20's, and 400 picks, 28's to 36's weft; all cotton. Much used for hangings, riding, and sporting garments.

CANVAS-
There are many fabrics termed canvas. The principal kinds are: Cloths for embroidering, which are very strong, plain weave, from 2, 3, or 4 fold yarns, and a more or less open plain weave. Java canvas is a fabric made from hard twist yarns (both warp and weft) and a mock leno weave. A canvas which is shipped grey or finished, and made from coarse yarns, hard twist, about 8's warp, 12's weft, 40 ends, 34 picks, in widths 26 to 32 inches in plain weave.
Sail canvas is a stout built cloth from two-fold linen warp and coarse cotton weft. A dress canvas woven from linen warp and cotton weft, such as 60's linen and 32's cotton, 74 ends, 76 picks, 39 inches wide. Dyed in many colours.

CARBONISING-
A process to remove burrs and vegetable matter from woollen cloths. It is a combination of heat and sulphuric acid.

CARDING-
A very thorough opening-out and separating of the fibres of cotton, together with an effective cleaning. Upon the work done by the carder depends the success of the future operations in the making of cloth. This opening and cleaning of the cotton can be so well done by the carding machine that it suffices for all classes of yarn except the very highest quality.

CARRANCLANES-
A check or plaid gingham, about 24 inches wide, 19 yards long, 60x44, 22's/26's. Shipped to India. Print yarn is used in some qualities.

CASEMENT-
A plain weave fabric used for casement window curtains, usually white or cream, made from good quality yarns, well woven, mercerised finish. Standard qualities are:-40 inches, 120 yards, 48x60, 32/18, 29 lb.; 48 ½ inches, 120 yards, 50x92, 28/24, 41 lb. Always woven one end in a dent. The 48 ½ inch cloth is a dress casement, and in this quality mohair, alpaca, or super cotton wefts are variously used. These are dyed in many colours.

CASHMERE-
A large trade is done in cotton cashmeres, which are generally dyed black, although colours are sometimes shown. The following are standard makes:-56 inches full, 90 yards, 52 x 140, 36's / 28's, 43 lb. ; 41 inches full, 90 yards, 80 x 104, 36's/40's, 22 lb. ; 32 inches full, 90 yards, 78 x 114, 32's/28's, 25 lb. The weave is 2 x 1 twill, and super weft is used. Another cashmere is made with a cotton warp, which is printed before weaving, and either cotton or wool weft. Used for dress purposes. The name is obtained from the Cashmere goat whose wool was first used to make cashmeres. This wool cashmere is still made in Yorkshire.

CASSENETTE-
A fine twill cloth with jacquard spots and small figures, made of very fine wool, and used for waistcoats. At times the weft is wool and silk or wool and cotton.

CASSIMERE, CASSIMER-
A woollen cloth with a close weave, 2 x 2 twill, closely sheared to give a smooth face. Almost any woollen cloth without a distinguishing name is called cassimere by merchants.

CASSIMERE TWILL-
Is the ordinary 2x2 twill.

CASTELLAMARE COTTON-
A variety grown in Italy from American seed, and consumed in the local trade.

CASTING-OUT-
A term used in the jacquard trade to indicate that some hooks of the machine are not used. This enables a lower reed to be used, as, for instance, with a 400's machine and 100's reed, if 50 ends per repeat are cast out an 87 reed can be used. It is necessary for the designer to know from which part of the machine the hooks are being left out.

CASTOR, OR BEAVER-
See "Beaver."


CELLULAR-
A leno fabric having an open or cell-like structure and specially suited for shirtings and underwear. A common style is made 28 inches, 120 yards, 32x40 per inch, 2/24's/24's, 23 lb. Better cloth is made from super yarns such us 2/40's ground and 2/30's crossing warps. The take-up of the crossing warp is about 70 per cent., thus for 100 yards of cloth 170 yards of warp is used. Mercerised yarn is introduced to give variety. The cloth known as " Ventilette" is purely a cellular fabric.

CENTRE PATTERNS-
A jacquard design with a border at each side, and the centre portion or body composed of a large pattern which reverses over and over in a circular direction until the complete pattern is built up. Seen in table-cloths,
counterpanes, rugs, carpets, etc.

CEYLONS-
Are colour stripe fabrics woven from cotton and a wool mixture weft, plain weave, used for underclothing and shirts. This name was given to the fabric by Messrs. David and John Anderson, Glasgow, about 1858. The weft is from 60 to 80 per cent. wool. A popular cloth is woven 68 ends, 60 picks, 36's warp, and 22's worsted counts weft.

CHADAR-
A grey shirting shipped to India, low in quality, 50 inches, wide, with a cord and colour heading at each end of 2 ½ yards. About 52x48 per inch, 24's/30's.

CHADUR-
A plain weave coloured check cloth, with a solid colour border at one side only. The Indian natives buy this largely.

CHAIN, OR DIAMOND YARN-
A threefold yarn made from a thick soft spun thread twisted with another thread of finer counts and a medium twist. This doubled thread is again twisted with a third and still finer thread, but with the twist in the reverse way.

CHALLIS-
An all-wool muslin delaine, printed in somewhat faint designs. Originally the challis was made with a silk warp and worsted weft, but imitations were put on the market, some with cotton warp and wool weft, others had cotton and wool mixed warp and weft.

CHAMBRAY-
A light weight cotton or linen dress fabric weighing 13 or 14 yards to the pound. Great similarity to a soft finished cambric fabric, made in 27 to 30 inch widths. A better quality has a silk weft. A gingham style of check or stripe has had this term applied to it, the cloth being plain weave, and printed in checks or stripes with white selvedges.

CHAPPE SILK YARN-
A silk yarn spun from inferior cocoons and silk spinners' waste. Used in the manufacture of velvets.

CHARDONNET ARTIFICIAL SILK-
A thread made from cotton waste, which is converted into a nitro-cellulose stiff solution known as "collodion." The collodion is forced under pressure through small capillary tubes forming very fine threads, which solidify quickly when exposed to air. The threads can then be wound on bobbins.

CHARMEUSE-
A fine satin from super yarns, as Sea Islands, with a natural lustre, usually made 41 inches, 90 yards, 120 reed, 180 picks, 80's/100's, or finer.

CHECKS-
Fabrics having rectangular patterns formed by crossing a striped warp with weft threads coloured in a somewhat similar order. Box looms are required, as each colour of weft has a separate shuttle.

CHEESE CLOTH-
A low plain weave fabric, such as 52x48 per inch, 40's/36's, 9 to 12 yards to the pound. Sometimes termed bunting.

CHEESE WINDING-
A large quantity of yarn is wound by this method, both grey and coloured, since the cheeses can be bleached or dyed without reeling or rewinding. A cheese is a form of yarn ball wound in zigzag crossings, so that it holds firm without a spool.

CHELAIS-
A bordered cloth similar to a dhootie, but with a broader heading and longer length.

CHENILLE-
This fancy "weft" is made by first weaving a fabric in a loom and then cutting this into strips. It can be woven in an ordinary plain loom fitted with gauze mounting. The strips are used as weft in such goods as shawls, carpets, table covers, etc. There are several patented methods of weaving chenille.

CHESHIRES, CHESHIRE PRINTERS-
A good quality plain cloth used for printing. A Cheshire printer has come to be recognised in the trade as being super quality. The cloth is made in Glossop, Mottram, Stalybridge, and other Cheshire and Derbyshire towns. The manufacturers are also spinners, and use their own yarns. A fair sample is 36 inches wide, 125 yards long, 72 x 84 per inch, 30's/30's.

CHEVIOT-
A name generally applied to heavy woollen fabrics that have a rough and shaggy face. The yarns used have a fair proportion of mungo or shoddy and cotton. The term denotes a class of fabrics, and not any particular weave.

CHEVIOT SHIRTING-
A super quality all-cotton cloth, either bleached or dyed with a soft finish, principally used in the home trade for shirts. A good sample is 84x84 per inch, 30's/30's or 2/40's/30's.

CHEVIOT TWEED-
A loosely woven all-wool cloth with a shaggy face.

CHIFFON-
The softest and most flimsy of silk cloths, plain weave. The name is derived from "chiffe," the French word for rag or flimsy cloth. Chiffonette is a name given to the finest chiffon. The prefix chiffon given to other styles of fabrics indicates the lightest of that style, such as chiffon taffetas, chiffon velours, etc.

CHINA GRASS-
This term is given to both ramie and rhea fibres. There are two chief varieties of the plant producing ramie fibre. One is green-leaved and the other white-leaved. The fibre from the former is rhea, and that from the latter is ramie.

CHINA GUM CLOTH, OR FOULARD DE CHINE-
A French-made fabric from silk warp and weft, about 23 to 24 inches wide, and printed black spots on a self-coloured, ground, or blue on white. It is woven in water from Japanese gum silk.

CHINCHILLA-
An overcoating cloth made from a long fibre wool, rough face, soft, and warm. The roughness is produced by small tufts in the yarn.

CHINE, OR SHADOW CRETONNES-
A fabric, plain weave, from fine yarns, with a printed ,warp and white weft. The printing is blurred, and gives an effect as if the colour had run.

CHINTZ-
Is the plural of "chint" the Eastern name for a broad gaudily printed fabric of cotton. Of recent years the term has meant a plain cotton cloth printed in bright colours. Fabrics woven with a print warp are sometimes put under this name, although more generally known as shadow cretonnes.

CHINTZING-
A method of adding ornament to fabrics by replacing one colour of weft with another in succeeding horizontal sections of the design. Called "weft chintzing." Utilised in such fabrics as fancy muslins of the better qualities.

CHUDDERS-
Shawls varying in size and quality and style according to the market for which intended, with borders, fringe, and headings. Constructed of cotton in many widths up to 48 inches x 48 inches.

CLAYS-
A worsted cloth, diagonal twill weave, similar to a serge cloth, but without gloss. The warp and weft yarns are slackly twisted, which gives a dull face to the cloth. The name was derived from a manufacturer.

CLEANING CLOTHS-(See Sponge Cloths)-
A term given to cloth used for cleaning machinery, usually made from cotton or spun silk waste. Of a coarse texture, and plain or leno weave. If leno, a special gauze reed is used, and healds are not necessary.

CLIP SPOTS-
Figured muslins ornamented with small detached spots of extra warp and weft, the floating material between the spots being afterwards clipped or sheared off.

CLOUD YARN-
Produced by twisting a fine thread with another thread, which at intervals has a slub formed; the slub is a short fibre twistless sliver. Also called " slub " or "flake" yarn.

COBURG-
A twill cloth made from cotton and silk, worsted and silk, or all worsted. Used as a dress fabric, varying in width and quality, and a twill weave on the face.

COCOA MATTING-
Originally made from the fibre of the cocoanut, but now made from jute. Used for coverings for stone floors.

COLLARETTE-
This is a knit goods term, and indicates a knitted neck-band for under vests instead of a cloth band.

COLOURED GOODS-
A term applied to all fabrics in which dyed yarn is used, either in warp or weft or both.

COLOURED LISTS-
List is another name for selvedge. Many cloths, both cotton and woollen, are made with a coloured selvedge. When first used it signified that the fabric was woven from dyed yarn and was not piece-dyed. [SG note: Coloured List was also one of the sections of the Uniform List of Prices used to calculate the wages for weaving different cloths in the Lancashire textile industry]

COMBINED TWILL-
A twill weave constructed by combining two simple twills together, end and end, or pick and pick.

COMBING-
The comber is a carding machine in a more perfect form, doing practically the same work, but doing it much finer than the card. It brings the fibres of cotton parallel, cleans out all neps and fine impurities, and extracts a large proportion of the short fibres. The comber is only used for super quality yarns. enabling finer counts to be spun from the same quality of cotton; the yarn is also stronger and more lustrous.

COMPOUND FABRICS-
Fabrics in the construction of which more than one warp and one weft are used are termed "compound." A backed cloth is now called compound, although the real compound cloth is composed of two or more distinct cloths.

CONDENSER YARNS-
Are spun from good quality waste, in counts 5's to 10's, and largely used for cotton 'blankets, low shirtings, quilts, repps, tussores, etc. They are short in fibre and soft spun.

CONDITIONING-
Yarn is "conditioned" to make it better able to withstand the subsequent processes, and also to add weight. This weight adding may or may not be honest. The most common method of conditioning is by exposure in a damp cellar for some days. Damp yarn weaves much better than dry and shows fewer snarls in the cloth.

CONSTITUTION CORDS-
Very heavy cotton cloths, and are the broadest cords made. Heavy fustian looms are required to weave them. The design is usually on 12 ends and 12 picks, requiring 8 staves. A variety made in Oldham is 31 inches full, 42 reed, 300 picks, 2/30 twist, 18's weft. The reed and weft vary. Every alternate pile pick is securely bound in the cloth, which makes it firm.

COP-CHANGING LOOMS-
Looms which use one shuttle, and parts that automatically eject an exhausted cop, insert a full one, and draw the weft thread into the shuttle eye while the loom is running, such as the Northrop.

COP-
A cone of yarn built upon a paper tube base, and used for shuttles.

COP TWIST-
Yarn intended for warps, built in cop form.

CORDELLAS-
An American term for kerseys, or kerseymere overcoatings.

CORD STRIPES-
Plain weave fabrics with a thick cord at regular distances apart. Two beams are used, and the best qualities are often dented, one in a dent with the cord ends crammed, such as 30 inch, 100 yards, 40 ends, 80 picks per inch, 50's/50's, with 12 cords 2/40's per inch, 3 in a dent. Imitation cord stripes are made in which the same yarn as used for the. ground is used, but with 4 or more ends working together. One beam is usual for this style.

CORDUROY-
A stout cotton cloth used for suitings. It is a cut pile fabric and has hard wearing qualities. The weave has a cord or rib surface with either round or flat top pile formed by the weft. When woven with a twill back it is known as a "Genoa back," and when a plain back is used it is termed a " Tabby back " corduroy."

CORKSCREW YARN-
Is made by twisting two threads of unequal diameters, by twisting two threads delivered at unequal rates, by twisting two threads with unequal twist, or twisting two threads in opposite directions.

CORKSCREW WEAVE-
A weave largely used by worsted manufacturers for coatings and trouserings. It is based on the sateen principle on 7, 9, or 11 shafts. A sateen base is used, and one or more dots added to the design, thus lifting a thread more than once. It is really a fancy twill weave and the name does not describe it. Either warp or weft face can be made.

CORUNNA STRIPES-
A light cotton fabric, generally 54 inches wide, made splits, to finish 25/6 inch. The designs are a plain stripe ½ inch to 1 inch, with a few ends of 2/60's mercerised yarn, such as 28 ends grey warp and 4 ends mercerised. A standard cloth is 54/120 yards splits, 76 ends grey, 2 ends, 2/60's, 80 picks, 36's and 2/60's warp, 36's weft.

COSMOS FIBRE-
Sometimes called a wool substitute, but contains no wool at all being manufactured on the continent from the waste of flax, hemp, and jute fabrics.

COTTON-
The most generally use of all vegetable fibres, and is grown in many parts of the world. The chief varieties are:-Sea Islands, Egyptian, American, Brazilian, Peruvian, East Indian, and African, placed in their order of quality, and each variety has many grades.

COTTONADE-
A coarse heavy, cotton fabric manufactured as an imitation of cassimere for men's wear, such as 64 ends 68 picks 16's warp 12's weft of very super quality yarns, twill weave.

COTTON, C.I.F-
Cotton bought on c.i.f. terms is a method of buying for forward delivery, and the seller paying costs, insurance, and freight up to Liverpool. The cotton is not actually in Liverpool, and samples cannot be seen at the time of purchase, but there is an understanding that the quality will be equal to a certain standard.

COTTON DAMASK-
See Damask."

COTTON FLANNEL-
An imitation of wool flannel in all cotton, either plain or twill weave, and raised one or both sides; 6's to 10's weft used, 30's to 36's twist.

COTTON FUTURES-
When a spinner books a large order for yarn ' with delivery extending to, say, 3 or 4 months, he will base the cost on the day's price of cotton, and to cover himself against loss he ought to buy enough cotton to complete the order. If for some reason he cannot buy all "spot” he will buy "futures" as a cover pure and simple. Suppose 600 bales are required, then he may buy 200 July, 200 August, and 200 September. Thus he does not buy any actual cotton; the deal is only on paper, but the spinner has covered his requirements to complete his order, and at the price quoted when he buys. When he wants the cotton he sells his "futures" and buys "spot" or actual cotton.

COTTON-HARD-
This is a cotton with a hard, harsh, wiry nature, such as rough Peruvian and Brazilian, which gives a loose, spongy, but more or less harsh appearance to the yarn.

COTTON-RUSTY-
This is damaged cotton, and may be due to defective baling, whereby the fibre is exposed to bad weather during transit. Bad weather before the cotton is picked, and when the ripe bells are open, also causes this defect.

COTTON-SOFT-
Is smooth and soft in feel and fairly clean, such an Smooth Peruvian, Ordinary American, Egyptian, etc.

COTTON-SPOT-
Cotton actually in stock in the market as at Liverpool, and of which samples may be inspected by the spinner is termed "Spot Cotton." This cotton can also be bought "on call," that is the buyer selects a "lot" of cotton, and the basis is then fixed that he will pay for a stated quantity; the final price is known only when he actually calls his cotton for use.

COTTON STAPLE-
Staple means the length of the fibre, a good staple is a long fibre, and a short staple is a short fibre.

COTTON YARN MEASURES-
54 in. = 1 thread (circumference of wrap reel).

80 threads = 1 lea = 120 yards.

7 leas = 1 hank = 840 yards.

1 bundle = 10 lb. (usually).

COUNTS-
The numbering of yarns is termed the "counts." The cotton system is based on 840 yards to the hank, and the number of hanks that weigh 1 lb. (7,000 grains), equals the counts, thus, 10's cotton - 10 x 840 yards per lb.

COUTIL-
A strong herring-bone twill cloth used for corset making. A standard cloth is 34 inches, 100 yards, 96 x 64, 22/22, 31 lb., and in 56 inches 51 lb., woven in a dobby loom on six shafts. Dyed drab or French grey. Tinted yarn is used for some cloths, generally French or silver grey.

COVER-
By "cover of cloth" is meant the full uniform appearance that all plain goods should have, in which every end and pick spreads out equidistant from each other. A well-covered cloth is the opposite to a "reedy" cloth, which shows the ends in pairs. A reedy cloth when bad is often called "grinny." A reedy cloth is caused by careless weaving, and can be stopped if the loom is properly set. [SG note: A ‘grin’ is the colloquial name given in the woollen trade especially to a fault where the warp threads separate. Can often be seen after fulling]

COVERT CLOTH-
A woollen cloth of twofold yarns, warp and weft, fine twill, very closely woven. It is a warp twill weave, and weft does not show on the face. Venetian coverts are a rib twill weave.

CRABBING-
A term given to the process through which the woollen fabric passes to fix the finished width. The cloth is tightly wound on to a roller with a hollow core; steam passing through the core and cloth sets the width.

CRAMMED STRIPES-
These are stripes produced in fabrics by cramming ends in the reed. One portion of the cloth will thus have a greater number of ends per inch than another.

CRANKY CHECKS-
This is one of the oldest cloths made for West Africa, and still finds a sale. It is a blue and white cheek, with design about two inches square, coarse yarns all through. Generally 36 inches finished, 20 yards, headed each end with the three green one red heading. The finish is the usual stiff finish, and a good. quality is 37 inches soft, 20 yards, 89/3 x 24, 16's grey, 16 indigo twist, 16's indigo, 18's cop weft. Made in Radcliffe and Rochdale.

CRASH-
A linen fabric, plain weave, woven with very uneven weft, which gives a rough surface to the cloth; used for towels. A finer quality is woven for use as dress goods. Irregular weaves of the crepe type are often used. A cotton imitation is on the market, but is a very poor substitute, made 56x56, 20's/8's colour weft.

GRAVENETTE-
A finishing process which is supposed to make the fabric waterproof, rainproof, and spot-proof.

CREPE. FANCY CREPE. CRAPE-
Originally called crapes, and were always black and used for mourning purposes. It is a puckered or crinkled fabric. Special hard-twisted yarns are used, and when the cloth is washed or finished a crepe effect is produced which is permanent, due to the shrinkage of the special yarns. The cloths produced by what is termed crepe weaves are not true crepes, since the cloth does not pucker. (See Crepon.)

CREPE-DE-CHINE-
A style of crepe, plain, figured, or printed, exceedingly soft or drapy-woven from a fine silk warp, and open band and cross band tightly twisted worsted weft, which shrinks to a permanent crinkled effect when finished. A lustre is always visible owing to the fine silk warp.

CREPE YARN-
Cotton yarn six to nine fold, and very hard twisted.

CREPOLINE-
The name. given to a warp rib fabric in which the weave is so broken up that a crepe effect is seen. Sometimes called "rib crepes."

CREPON-
A crepe-like structure obtained in several ways, such as (1) a combination of materials; (2) combination of weaves; (3) combination of materials and weaves; (4) by special chemical processes. Crepons are true crepes, because the fabric when finished is crinkled. The terms “crepe" and "crepon" are now used for any fabric of the crepe style produced by any of the four methods given above. Cloths produced by method 2 are not true crepons. The crepes made for shipping to India, China, South America, and other markets in cotton are produced by method 2 in dobby looms and from 6 to 16 shafts used. Standard makes are as follow:-34/120 yards, 58 x 62, 34/16. 29 ½ lb. 12 shafts; 35/120 yards, 68 x 68, 36/22. 28 lb. 8 shafts; 56/120 yards, 72 x 76, 36/24. 46 lb. 8 shafts.

CRESHE-
The Italian name for crepon, and made from silk warp, wool weft.

CRETES-
These are figured muslins with a plain ground and coloured ornament such as flowers. Generally used for curtains. Woven in Jacquard looms.

CRETONNE-
A printed cotton cloth, 30's to 40's warp, 6's to 10's weft (condenser), plain or twill weave. Printed in bold patterns, the fabric being covered with pattern. Used for curtains and furniture cloths. Widths up to 50 inches. Satin and oatmeal weaves are sometimes used, but the bulk of the trade is plain or 2 x 2 twill. Indian cretonnes are usually 42 inches wide when finished, 48 ends, 32 picks, 36's warp, 8's weft.

CRIMPS-
A plain weave cloth woven from two beams, usually differently weighted,- and different counts of yarn. The finer warp is tight and the coarser slack. This difference in counts and tension causes the coarse parts to crimp and become prominent. Coloured yarns are often used. A great variety of qualities are made.

CRINKLE OR SEERSUCKER-
Originally meant a silk fabric with flat and puckered stripes alternating across the fabric. Now applied to cotton dress fabrics of the better quality crimp styles.

CRINOLINE-
A fabric used as stiffening for dress purposes; widths 18 inches to 22 inches; horsehair and cotton yarns. An all-cotton variety is made with a hard twist warp.

CROSS-DYED-
The dyeing of a mixture fabric composed of, say, cotton warp and wool weft; the cotton warp has been yarn dyed, and the cloth is dyed when woven in order to dye the weft; such as alpacas, mohairs, lustres, etc. All grey yarn may be used, and the cloth put through two dyeing processes when woven.

CROSSOVER-
A fabric of a stripe character in which the stripes are produced in the weft ; generally the stripes are coloured, but different weaves have been used on dobby looms. Africa (West and South) and South America use a large quantity of the coloured crossovers in 30 inch and 37 inch 46 x 60, 30's twist, 9's colour, and 12's grey wefts, 8 ounces per yard for 37 inch soft finish.

CROSS-REELED-
In reeling, the yarn is wound from bobbins on to a revolving reel in the form of a skein or hank, in which form it is best suitable for bleaching, dyeing, or mercerising. By cross-reeling the thread is traversed in the winding on to the reel, which makes the hank firmer.

CROSS-WEAVING-
Is a style of weaving which produces open work effects such as seen in gauzes and Lenos. It is produced by crossing one warp thread with another, first to one side and then to the other in some definite order. (See Lenos.)

CROW-TWILL-
A name given to the ordinary 3 x 1 twill by the wool and worsted trade.

CROYDONS-
A home trade term for good qualities plain cloths 34 in. to 36 in. wide, bleached, and calendered. A standard make is 72 ends, 72 picks, 36's warp, 30's welt. African croydons are a low make of cloth, 28 ½ inches, 125 yards, 48 x 50, 50 x 52, or 52 x 56, 28's/14's, 28's/20's, bleached and croydon finish.

CURL YARN-
A type of fancy yarn twist in which loops are formed of mohair or thick cotton or two ordinary threads. One of the ordinary or thin threads and the thick cotton or mohair are twisted together, the thin thread being tightly held and the thick one slackly twisted round it. This two-fold thread is then twisted in the reverse direction with another thin thread. The reverse twisting throws up the thick thread in the form of loops. The curls or loops vary in size from small to large. Small loops are usually on yarns intended for dress goods, large ones for astrakhans, etc.

CUT-
A length of warp required to weave a piece of cloth. Also the piece when woven. A worsted cut is usually 70 yards. The length in the cotton trade varies from 50 to 120 yards.

CUT CHECKS-
Woollen manufacturers use these patterns largely for coatings and vestings. Their characteristic feature is a check produced by two adjoining threads working exactly opposite to each other and forming clear cuts.

CUTTLING OR (PLAITING)-
The folding of a fabric in laps of 36 inches after finishing.

CUT SYSTEM-
The Galashiels term for the counts used in the trade in which the cut or lea is 300 yards, and the number of these cuts or leas that weigh 20 ounces indicates the counts.

DACCA MUSLIN-
Probably the finest and most flimsy fabric that has ever been made. For centuries the cloth was made by the natives of Dacca from local grown cotton. the cotton being spun by hand by women, whose sense of touch was remarkable, and the counts varied from about 450's to 600's. The cloths were usually 36 inches wide, and many of them so fine that they would pass through a finger ring, and 10 yards weighed about three or four ounces. Only one or two weavers are making Dacca muslins to-day. The fabrics shipped to India of Lancashire manufacture and known as "Dacca muslins" are perhaps the finest cloths that can be made by machinery, but they by no means equal in fineness the real article. About 110's to 140's warp and 160's to 200's weft is used.

DAMASK (COTTON)-
A cotton cloth woven in fancy jacquard patterns and used for table covers, napkins, curtains, upholstery cloth, etc. They can be reversible or one-sided only. Designs floral or geometrical. Yarns 8's to 40's warp and weft. The ground and figure are bound by uniform weaves, generally twill or satin. The figure is developed by interchanging the warp and weft and the pattern so made up that the reflection of light on the threads brings out the effect. Linen and silk damasks only differ in material, as cotton damasks are made in very fine yarns.

DAMASSE-
A term applied to damask-like fabrics, but with a fancy woven design.

DAMASSIN-
A type of damask fabric in which a gold or other metallic or tinsel weft thread is used.

DELAINE-
A light all-wool cloth of plain weave, usually printed either in the piece or warp printed. The term is derived from "Mousseline delaine," which signifies "wool muslin." A good quality is made 54 ends. 64 picks, 46's/64's botany, but up to 64 ends, 70 picks, and from 40's to 70's yarn are used. Cotton delaines are now made as imitations of the real cloth. A general term for this cotton cloth is "delainette" [SG note: ‘HLW delaine’ is often cited as an occupation in the UK census records. This means ‘hand loom weaver, wool’ and distinguishes the wool weavers from the other staples.]

DELAINETTES-
The term applied to cotton delaines of many qualities. Plain weave; printed designs; 70 x 80 to 80 x 100 ends and picks, and 40's to 54's twist, 50's to 60's weft.

DELVERS-
Plain grey cloths made in Rawtenstall, Todmorden, and Bacup. Heavy sized twist. The cloth is usually finished with a glaze finish. Made 28 inches or 37 inches wide to finish 27 ½ inches or 36 inches. A popular cloth is 54 x 48 per inch, 24's warp, 27's weft. Shipped to West Africa and South America.

DENIER SYSTEM-
A method of counting or numbering silk yarns. The hank is 520 yards and the weight the denier; 533 ½ deniers weigh one ounce. The number of deniers that one hank weighs gives the counts of the yarn. This method is now used for artificial silk yarns.

DENIM-
A coarse twill cloth woven from coloured yarns, usually blue or brown, and made into overalls for workmen. Widths from 27 inches to 36 inches, 58 x 58 per inch, 20's/22's yarns.

DENTED CORDS-
Two, three, or more ends crammed in the reed, working as one to form a cord down the piece. Corded cloths made this way can be woven from one beam, whereas when a single thick cord is used two beams are necessary.

DENT-
The wire in a reed. Each wire is separated by a space through which the warp ends pass. Dents per inch indicate the set of the cloth.

DEVON OR MEDICAL HUCK-
This is the simplest form of huckaback weave and is on 10 ends, 6 picks. The warp threads are usually dented 3 and 2 per dent alternately, which tends to prevent the ends splitting in the cloth and forming cracks.

DHARWAR COTTON-
A variety grown in the Bombay Presidency, and is placed in the Surat class, has a short fibre, is fairly clean and strong, and of a light cream tint. Principally used for counts heavier than 20's.

DHOLLERA COTTON-
A native Indian cotton of a poor class; is not strong. It is very dirty, and only used for a low coarse weft.

DHOOTIES-
Are light-weight cloths of plain weave and used by the natives of India as loin cloths. The cheaper styles have a narrow red stripe near each selvedge and red cross stripes or headings, others have simply grey stripes, made by cramming ends in the reed. The better styles have fancy dobby borders of extra coloured warp threads and crammed cross stripes in the weft. Widths are about 40 inches to 43 inches, lengths about 4 to 6 yards each, and the yarns are seldom heavier than 36's warp and weft.

DIAGONAL-
A term used to denote a bold twill weave, varying from 8 to 16 staves. Used in both the cotton and woollen trades.

DIAGONALS-
A variety of heavy fustian cloth used for sporting clothing and other garments where rough wear is wanted. Usually made with a twofold warp and with a large number of picks. The cords run in a diagonal direction owing to the weave being a bold twill . Qualities about 56 ends, 2/24's warp, 300 to 380 picks, 20's or 22's are common.

DIAMOND REELING-
A form of cross-reeling which gives a more pronounced crossing of the threads as they cross and recross, at such interval as to show a series of open or net-like meshes having a diamond shape.

DIAMOND WEAVES-
A term generally applied to all weaves of a diamond character.

DIAMOND YARN-
A compound yarn composed of a thick centre thread and two finer ones. The thick thread, about 4's, is soft twisted, with, say, a 2/36's with 8 turns per inch; this double thread is then twisted with another 2/36's, but about 4 turns per inch, and reverse twist. The fine threads are usually different in colour from the thick one. Varying qualities are made by altering the counts and turns per inch.

DIAPERS-
The original diaper was of linen, and based on the 5-end sateen weave woven on the damask principle. The cloth has a smooth, even surface. Cotton diapers are now made and used for towels. Two or threefold warp is usual, such as 2/16's, 3/24's, with 8's weft. In the cheaper qualities a single yarn 16's to 24's is used. The term is also applied to pattern and indicates a small diamond effect repeated all over the fabric.

DIMITY-
This term was given by Indian traders to a cotton cloth of the fustian character, and usually figured with raised stripes, the stripes giving an appearance of embossing due to the thick weft floats. To-day the dimity is understood to be a light cloth of the lawn character, but with cords forming stripes.

DISCHARGE PRINTS-
These are fabrics that are first dyed in a solid colour, such as blue, dried without fixing the colour, then passed through a printing machine and printed with a chemical substance which acting upon the dye discharges or clears it from the fabric. When finished the cloth will have white figuring on a blue ground.

DIVIDEND OF LOOM-
A number obtained from the product of the picks per inch, or quarter-inch, and the number of teeth in the change wheel necessary to produce those picks. To obtain picks per inch produced by a change wheel, divide the dividend by the number of teeth in the wheel. Dividing the dividend by the picks will give the required change wheel.

DOBBY MACHINES-
This machine is the most useful shedding motion used in the cotton trade, since it can be used for both simple and complicated weaves. There are many varieties in use, most of them being of the negative type which have springs beneath the healds to bring the healds down again after being lifted by the dobby. In the cotton trade up to 18 or 20 healds is usual. The length of pattern in the weft can be very great.

DOBBY SHEDDING-
These machines form various kinds of sheds, viz., closed, centre sheds, open sheds, and semi-open sheds.
CLOSED SHEDS- The warp yarn is brought to one level right across at each pick.
CENTRE SHEDS- Every thread of the warp is in motion at each pick. Part ascends and part descends. The shed opens from the middle.
OPEN SHEDS- The warp yarn constantly forms two lines and changes are made by moving threads from one line to the other.
SFMI-OPEN SHED- This shed has a stationary bottom line, and to make a change threads pass from the top to the bottom or only fall half-way and then go to the top again.

DOESKIN-
A fine woollen cloth made from the best botany wool. The warp is set very closely in the reed, 5-end warp satin weave. The twill is not visible owing to the closeness of the weave, and a very smooth, level face is given to the cloth. A soft dress finish is applied.

DOFFING-
The operation of removing the filled bobbins from the various spinning machines and supplying empty ones.

DOGSKIN-
A term still heard, but very seldom. It is a weft plush fabric made from a twofold cotton warp and cotton mohair weft; the mohair forms the pile. Sometimes called "imitation sealskin."

DOILY DESIGNS-
These are of two classes, those with ornament made by the jacquard, which are really damask cloths, and those which have ornament added by hand needlework after weaving. The latter style is woven in the loom in circular or square patterns, and after weaving the complete circular or square pieces are cut out of the cloth and edged by a machine to prevent fraying.

DOMECK-
A term given to a very low style of cotton damask. Not often used.

DOMESTICS-
The home trade uses this term to denote grey cloths for domestic purposes which are either plain or twill weave, generally pure sized. Widths 30 inches to 36 inches, and qualities are many. Shipping domestics are much inferior in quality to the home trade cloths, and are as a rule heavily sized. Widths are 30 inches to 36 inches, 54 to 64 reed, 70 to 72 picks, 24's warp, and 36's weft, or somewhere near these yarns. Heavy domestics are made from coarse yams, such as 10's to 14's warp and weft, and about 48 ends and 52 picks.

DOMET-
A strong, heavy twill cloth, with a raised face on both sides, grey or bleached. It is similar to canton flannel, but napped both sides. The original domet had a cotton warp and woollen weft and was loosely woven. It was used by dressmakers as wadding.

DORIA STRIPES-
Light fabrics having stripes formed by cramming warp ends in the reed. The stripes may be plain or twill and the ground woven one end in a reed. The qualities vary greatly. Doria checks are also made on dobby looms, the checking being simply crammed picks.

DOUBLE ENDS-
Two ends drawn through the same dent in the reed and same eye in the heald and weaving as one. Double ends and double picks are common in many matting cloths. Double ends often appear in a cloth where not intended, and this is a weaving fault.

DOUBLE CLOTHS-
Two single cloths combined together, each with its own warp and weft.

DOUBLE-FACED SATINS-
A fabric, with a warp satin face on both sides. Two sets of warp threads are used with one weft series interweaving with both warps. Super yarns are necessary.

DOUBLE PLAINS-
A combination of two plain cloths woven together at one weaving. The two cloths, though quite distinct, may change place, to form stripes, checks, or figures. Largely employed for vestings and suitings in both the cotton and the wool trades.

DOUBLE-SPUN YARN-
A super quality of yarn made quite free from knots and faults by the double work put on it in the spinning room.

DOUBLE WARPS-
A term used by home trade buyers for a plain cloth made from twofold warp and single weft, good quality yarns. The cloth is used for pillow cases, underwear, etc. Widths 34 ½ inches to 36 inches, 60 ends x 60 picks, or 44 ends, one in a dent, and 72 picks; yarns 2/36's twist, 16's to 20's weft. The finished cloth is bleached and soft finished.

DOUBLING-
The twisting together of two or more threads to make a stronger and finer thread. Many concerns carry on the separate business of doubling, and buy single yarns from spinners. They double these and sell on bobbins, as cops, or on beams.

DOUPS-
Special heald shafts used in the manufacture of gauze and leno fabrics. A doup consists of a heald shaft termed the "front standard" and a half heald termed the "doup heald." The twine of the doup heald passes over the eye of the front standard and returns through it.

DOWLAS-
This term for a great number of years was used to denote a coarse linen fabric used as a clothing material by the peasants of France. It is now applied to a cotton cloth made from rough spun yarn and the woven material linen finished with a glaze. A fair quality is 36 inches wide, 60 ends, 48 picks, 20's warp, 10's weft.

DRAB-
A thick, heavy, and strong grey cloth, generally a drill weave. Tinted yarn of a dull brown shade sometimes is used. Also applies to a 3-shaft drill dyed drab, and used for corset making and pocketing.

DRABBETT-
A twill-weave linen fabric, sold unbleached for domestic purposes, such as tea towels, etc.

DRAFT-
The indication of the order of drawing in of the warp threads through the eyes of the healds.

DRAFTING-
The drawing-in of the warp threads through the eyes of the healds on the principle that every end that works alike may be drawn on the same shaft. Sometimes the least possible number of shafts is not an advantage. The number of heald shafts required is shown by the draft as every end that lifts differently from others must be on its own shaft. Thus a 6-end twill requires 6 shafts, a 12-end, 12 shafts, and so on.

DRAP D’ETE-
A heavy cashmere fabric with a fine twill weave, very closely woven, and all-worsted yarns. Used for garments for religious purposes.

DRAWING-
Perhaps the most important process in a spinning mill, since it is the first stage in the formation of the actual thread. In this process the fibres of cotton are reduced to a parallel order, and several slivers taken from the card are here drawn or blended together, the weak points removed, and an even smooth sliver results.

DRAWING-IN OR LOOMING-
The process of drawing each end of the warp separately through the dents of the reed and the eyes of the healds, in the order indicated by the draft.

DRESSED YARN-
Fine yarn such as 80's and upwards, and some super qualities are usually dressed on the Yorkshire dressing frame, which treats the yarn more gently and with less friction than would be the case if slashed. Dressed warps are very common in the coloured trade.

DRESSED WARPS (See WARPS).

DRILLETTE-
A cotton cloth of 5-shaft warp satin weave and lighter yarns than the satin drill. It is made largely for the home and many foreign markets, both dyed and finished. A sample quality is 41 inches, 64 yards, 120 ends, 68 picks, 36's warp, 42's weft.

DRILLS-
Strong, heavy warp faced cloths of 3-end weave, good quality yarns of counts from 12's to 24's warp and weft. Usually 28 inches to 30 inches wide for the shipping trade. They are shipped grey, grey finished, white, dyed, and printed.

DRILLS, FLORENTINE OR FRENCH TWILL-
A four-shaft weave from heavy yarns of good quality, warp faced, with a pronounced twill rib. Khaki drills are principally made with this weave. Sample cloths are 29 inches wide, 88 x 44, 18/16-88 x 48, 12/12-96 x 54, 14/14.

DRILLS, SATIN-
The five-shaft satin weave, warp faced, in a finer reed than other drills to throw the weft out of sight on the face. The yarns must be good qualities, and free from hard and soft places.

DROP PATTERN-
A term used by designers to denote that the main feature of the pattern forms the four corners of a diamond. This gives a much better appearance than patterns repeating across the fabric on the square principle.

DROP BOX (SHUTTLE-BOX MOTION)-
Several shuttle-boxes placed at one or both ends of a loom, which automatically fall into their selected places to enable different colours or counts of weft to be used.

DREADNOUGHT (See BEARSKIN).

DRUGGETT-
A coarse fabric with linen warp and wool weft used as a protection for carpets. Also made to-day from jute or coarse cotton.

DUCK-
A heavy cotton cloth used for purposes where strength and weight are required, such as for sails, boot linings, tent cloths, etc. The original duck was a linen cloth made from double warp and weft of coarse counts, but nearly all ducks are now made from cotton yarns. Usually woven double ends and double picks. A light duck is made. This is bleached and used for men's suitings in tropical countries.

DUFFLE-
A low-grade blanket made from poor quality woollen yarns, about 60 inches wide, in all colours, and napped both sides.

DUNGAREES-
Cotton cloths, 4-end twill weave, warp face, made from dyed warp and weft of heavy counts. Some qualities have a white or grey stripe down each selvedge. Really a denim with coloured weft instead of grey.

DUPLEX PRINTS-
Cotton cloths printed on both sides in two distinct operations. The designs may or may not be the same.

DUSTER CLOTH-
A dress goods fabric piece dyed and woven on 18/22 shafts in designs made from a combination of twills, patterns repeat on 70 to 84 ends and 20 to 35 picks ; 84 reed, 70 picks, 2/28 worsted warp, 16's to 2o’s worsted weft, 56 inches in loom to finish 52 inches.

DYEING-
The process of applying colour to yarns or fabrics.

ECOSSE OR TRICOT-
A rib fabric with crossover effect with two colours of weft. Woven in check looms from all cotton ; about 20's warp and 40's weft. The cloth is actually a double weft rib, and when woven shows two stripes of different colours.

EGYPTIAN COTTON-
Second only in quality to Sea Islands, and is well adapted for spinning into fine counts of high quality. Largely spun into yarn in Bolton and district. The production of this cotton is given in cantars (98 lb. to 100 lb.). Bales of Egyptian cotton are about 750 lb.

ELL-
A measure of length equal to 40 inches. sometimes met with in Scotland.

ELONGATED TWILLS-
Are ordinary twills altered either by structure or weave so as to form a more vertical or horizontal twill.

EMBOSSED VELVET-
Ordinary cotton velveteen embossed either by engraved rollers or by block printing.

EMBROIDERIES-
A fine linen fabric of plain weave, one end in a dent, and used as a ground cloth for embroidery work. Cotton yarns of super quality are also used in many weights.

EMBROIDERY COTTON-
Usually a fourfold yarn used for hand embroidery.

ENAMELLED CLOTH-
A heavy cotton fabric of coarse yarns closely woven and finished with a glazed finish to imitate leather. Used for carriage and cheap furniture decoration.

ENDS-
The individual threads of warp yarn. 90 ends per inch means 90 threads of yarn per inch.

ENDS DOWN-
Missing threads of warp in the cloth, and is a fault caused by the warp ends breaking during weaving.

EOLIENNE-
A dress goods fabric, plain weave, made in Yorkshire from a very fine loosely-twisted gum silk warp of about 14 to 24 deniers and a hard-twisted botany weft, single or twofold, of coarse counts. The silk warp is woven in its green state owing to the loose twist, the gum being removed during finishing.

EPINGHUE CREPON-
A dress cloth made from organzine silk warp and two wefts. Woven on jacquards with warp making repp ground by weaving with the two wefts. The figure is formed by warp-weaving with the silk weft only and the worsted floating at the back; a variety is 120 ends, 88 picks, 2/60's black botany weft, and a silk weft woven pick-and-pick. There are many qualities now made.

EPINGLE BROCADE-
A dress cloth made from silk warp and wool weft with the warp printed. The cloth has a jacquard figure floated on the surface. A round cord is introduced in the weft by weaving four or five picks in a shed. The cloth is a very expensive one.

EPONGE-
The French term for sponge cloth,

ESTAMENES-
A 2 by 2 twill worsted cloth loosely woven from rough yarns. The cloth when finished has a fuzzy fibrous appearance due to the "napping" of the fibres during the process of milling. Made to imitate the French cloth “estame," which is a knitted worsted.

ETAMINES-
A gauze or network cloth loosely woven from coarse yarns, cotton and wool, cotton and linen, all linen, silk and wool, and many other mixtures. Used as an outer garment over a skirt of some other colour or material. The term is the French name for bunting or sifting cloth, and was originally applied to cloths used for sifting purposes.

ESTRELLA-
A dress fabric made plain weave from a silk warp and fine Botany weft. The cloth requires a box loom, since the wefting is 2 picks right-hand twist and 2 picks left-hand twist yarns. The weft is a very hard twist, which produces in the finished cloth a crinkled crepe effect.

EXTRACTED PRINTS-
Fabrics first printed with a preparation substance and afterwards dyed. After washing, the dye is discharged where it covered the preparation substance to form the design.

FACONNE-
A raised figure on the surface, such as seen in figured terry cloths. The French term for “figure"

FAILLE-
The French term for a fabric used as a head-dress made from all-silk yarns, dyed black with a flat rib effect in the weft.

FALL'S CHECKS-
A light weight matting cloth woven plain weave, two ends in an eye of the heald. The design is a small check about 1 in. to 3 in., 18 ends white, 2 ends colour, 18 picks white, 2 picks colour; usually 36 inches wide, 72 ends by 36 picks, 2,/36 warp, 20's weft, 30's colour. Made for South America, and shipped finished with a firm finish in 10 yard pieces.

FANCY WEAVING-
This term has various meanings. In a plain weaving district as Rawtenstall a drill is a fancy cloth, while in a shed where jacquards are used the weavers would call a brocade leno, a fancy. Generally a fancy cloth is any cloth that is, not a plain or a twill.

FARINA-
Potato starch, and largely used as a sizing substance. It has good adhesive properties, and makes a thick paste. Requires a certain amount of softening to neutralise its naturally crisp feel

FARMERS' SATIN-
A good quality satin fabric, woven from cotton warp and wool weft. Used as a lining material. Finished with a lustre.

FAST COLOURS-
A "fast colour" is one which after exposure to light after washing or piece-bleaching still retains its depth of colour. Colours that resist bleaching are as a rule fast to other influences, so far as the cotton trade is concerned.

FAST REED LOOM-
For fabrics with heavy weft a fast reed motion is preferable owing to greater rigidity. In a fast reed loom when the shuttle fails to reach its box the loom instantly stops by the impact of a metal blade upon the frog. The shock is a great strain upon many parts of the loom. [SG note: Also known as a ‘bang-up’ loom]

FEARNOUGHT-
Another name for bearskin, which see.

FEELER-
A full width pattern, half-yard or more sent out to show cloth. Also applied to the finger used on Northrop looms for detecting empty pirns in the shuttle.

FEEL OR HANDLE-
A term used by both buyers and sellers to denote the peculiarities of a cloth when handled, such as:

BOARDY FEEL-Yarn is hard or harsh or sized too hard.
THIN FEEL-Cloth is very thin in handle.
CRACKLY or PAPERLIKE-The cloth has the peculiar crackle of paper.
FULL AND CLOTHY FEEL-The conditions generally required.

FELL OF CLOTH-
The edge of the cloth. which is nearest to the reed when being woven.

FELT-
A woollen fabric united without weaving by the application of heat, moisture, and pressure

FELTER-
Badly-woven place caused usually by a broken warp thread or the entanglement of adjoining ends. See Float.

FELTING-
The characteristic possessed by most wool fibres to a more or less degree, of interlocking together. Fine Australian merino is supposed to be the best felting wool. Good felting wools make the firmest cloths.

FENTS-
The tab ends of cloth-short or damaged bits-sold by the pound.

FIBRES-
The raw materials used by textile manufacturer which are spun into threads. A fibre is the individual constituent of a thread. They come under four headings, viz.

MINERAL ORIGIN-Gold, silver, copper, asbestos.
ANIMAL ORIGIN- Silk, wool, hair.
VEGETABLE ORIGIN- Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, china grass etc.
ARTIFICIAL- Spun glass, artificial silk.

FIGURED-
Cloths are termed figured when they are ornamented by means of coloured yarn, extra warp or weft, or by a combination of weaves.

FILEYING- See CASTING-OUT.

FILLED CLOTH-
Denotes that the cloth has had some substance added to it in the finishing process, the purpose being to fill in the spaces between the threads by some chemical compound and give the cloth a better appearance.

FILLING-
Term used by American traders to mean weft. A weighting substance such as starch, size, china clay, etc., put on to a cloth generally to add weight, sometimes to make it firmer.

FINISHER-
The name of a machine used by spinners for the further removal of impurities from cotton following the scutcher and preceding the carding engines.

FINISHING-
Nearly all woven fabrics are put through some process after weaving to give handle, weight, strength, appearance, lustre, or some other property. All these come under the general term of finishing.

FLAKE YARN-
A yarn composed of two foundation threads with which small pieces of short-fibred and twistless slivers are twisted at intervals. When woven gives a round or elongated spot or lump.

FLANNEL-
An all-wool fabric of plain or twill weave, usually quite pure since it is worn as underclothing. The best flannel is made from fully shrunk yarns with a slight twist.

FLANNELLES DE REIMS-
Coloured flannel in fancy designs, used as wrappers by ladies. A French production, wool all through, 3 by 1 twill, various qualities. Fancy yarns and lappet effects often used.

FLANNELETTE-
A cotton fabric made to imitate flannel. Plain or twill weave, raised one or both sides, made in stripes, checks, or self-colours. Soft spun mule weft usually used. Coloured and mercerised yarns are made use of for House cloths; and shirtings. Common qualities are: 34 in., 72x64. 32/30 plain. 34 in., 88x48. 22/8 plain. 36 in., 72x64. 18 to 24/10's to 18's twill. Innumerable qualities and widths are made for both home and foreign markets.

FLAX-
A fibre of probably Egyptian origin and of very ancient descent. It is found in mummy cloths. Obtained from the stalk of the plant "herium usitatissimum." Forms the cloths known as linen.

FLAX DAMASK-
A brocade fabric made with a linen warp and coloured cotton weft. The figuring is obtained by warp floats; the linen floats when finished give a lustrous appearance to the ornament, while the ground appears dead.

FLEECED MOZAMBIQUE-
An expensive dress material usually with a dark pattern on a lighter shade ground having bright-coloured spots. A short fleecy nap is given to the face. Woven with a pure silk warp and super twofold worsted weft. Extra warp is employed of a low grade of silk which floats, and the fabric is sheared after weaving; the low quality silk being sheared off leaves a fluffy nap. The spotting is obtained by the better quality silk.

FLEECE-LINED-
A heavy woollen knitted fabric with three series of threads forming face, back, and binding. The back is raised to form the "fleece lining." An imitation is made of the ordinary single thread woollen underwear fabric with a raised nap on its inner face.

FLOAT-
A float is a warp or weft thread which lies on top of the opposite series for a distance of several threads; thus a warp float is a warp end floating over weft threads, and a weft float is a weft thread floating over warp threads. Many fancy weaves are so designed that the floating of one or the other series of threads is required. There is also the float that is not required, and which is a most objectionable fault in any cloth, and generally caused by careless weaving, although inferior yarn is very liable. to produce this fault. When one or more ends break and become entangled with adjoining threads this fault is made.

FLOCKS-
Waste fibres obtained from wool during the different finishing processes. There are three kinds, of different values. Milling flocks are the most valuable, as they can be used for blending with wool to produce a lower grade. Cropping flocks are very short fibres removed during the cutting or cropping process, and principally used by wallpaper manufacturers. Raising flocks are similar to the milling, but not as valuable.

FLORENTINE DRILL, OR FRENCH TWILL-
The four-shaft 3 up and 1 down drill. See Drill.

FLY COTTON-
The short, nepped, and immature fibres of cotton thrown out by the card owing to being of insufficient length for the card teeth to hold.

FODENS-
A cloth of the denim type, but not so coarse in yarns. Usually in stripes from blue and white warps and blue weft.

FOLDED YARN-
Another term for doubled yarns.

FOULARD-
The real foulard is a light weight 2 X 2 twill fabric printed blue or black spots on a white ground. Cotton foulards are made to imitate the silk kind, from super quality yarns and printed in similar styles, usually plain weave.

FOULARD DE CHINE-
Same as China Gum Cloth, which see,

FOULIE-
A serge twill dress fabric from single worsted yarns of good quality. A rough fibrous face is a characteristic of the cloth.

FOUNDATION MUSLIN-
A strong plain weave cotton cloth used for stiffening dresses. Medium weights of yarn are usual, and the cloth is stiff finished. Very similar to buckram, but better quality.

FOUR-PLY BROCADES-
Are super table covers in which two warps and four differently coloured wefts are used. The wefts form the figuring.

FRAME BRUSSELS-
The number of frames used in the manufacture of a Brussels carpet will to a certain extent determine the quality. Three, four, or five frames are common, each frame holding 256 bobbins of yarn; so a 3-frame has 256x3=768 warp threads, and a 5-frame 256x5=1,280 warp threads. Only 256 threads show on the face, the remainder form the back of the carpet. Thus it will be seen that a 5-frame carpet is much thicker, heavier, and more durable than the others.

FRENCH CAMBRIC-See CAMBRIC.

FRENCH LAWN FINISH-
A very firm and brittle finish given to fine lawn cloths, with a glossy appearance. The fabric is dried on stretching frames in order to keep it stiff,

FRENCH PERCALE-
A cambric, very fine and closely woven, either bleached or printed. Woven from good quality yarns. Finished with more filling than other cambrics without gloss.

FRENCH TWILL-
A satin cloth made with a twist-way spun weft and twill to the right.

FRIESE BOUCLE-See TERRY.

FRIEZE-
A heavy woollen fabric with a rough, irregular nap, and a more or less hard feel. Originally an Irish production; generally grey in colour, and used for the lower grade clothing. Also made from a mixture of wool and shoddy, or mungo.

FULLING-
SG note. A process used on woollen cloths to make an open weave dense. The cloth is mechanically worked by either hammers or rotary machines whilst soaked in a chemical which induces saponification in the natural oils. This induces shrinkage in the fibres and makes the cloth shrink and become dense. Always followed by scouring to remove the active chemical.

FURNITURES-
A general term to include all fabrics used for upholstery purposes, and includes such cloths as drills, cretonnes, repps, brocades, etc.

FUSTIAN-
A term given to the class of cotton fabrics which includes corduroys, moleskins, constitution cords, cords, heavy Bedford cords, etc., used for clothing purposes.

FUTURES-
Undoubtedly there is a large amount of speculation in "futures" cotton, but there is also a great legitimate trade done which provides a cover for large orders by the spinner. The purchase of futures enables a spinner to cover or protect himself from fluctuations in the price of cotton. If a spinner on October 6 sells his production for the following January, and does not cover in any way he is speculating on the chance that cotton will be less in price in January than it was on October 6. See also Spot Cotton.

GABARDINE-
The real gabardine is a fabric made from worsted warp and cotton weft. Usually woven on 11 staves in a dobby loom with a fine reed, ends more than double the picks, so the cotton weft is not visible on the face. Twofold worsted and two-fold cotton. All cotton gabardines are made in great quantities, 54 inches or wider, with super qualities two-fold warp and weft. Some of the lower qualities have single yarns or single weft only. The 11 stave warp face weave is mostly used, but some are made 3 x 1 warp twill. An example of better quality is 54 full, 90 ends, 140x72. 2/60 2/40. Both the worsted and cotton varieties are used for waterproofs and coatings.

GALATEAS-
Coloured stripe drills, 3-shaft weave, the warp being all coloured yarn. Mostly the 3-shaft twill weave, though the 4-shaft twill weave has been used, as well as dobby spots. Many qualities are being made. A good sample is 27 inches, 68x72, 24/16. The colours are fast for washing, since the cloth is used for skirtings, boys' suiting, nurses uniforms, etc.

GAMBROONS-
A plain matting cotton cloth shipped to India and used for clothing, hangings, and many domestic purposes. About 26 inches in width, 60 x 60, 16's / 16's, or 56 x 56, 14's / 12's, warped 2 blue, 2 black, 2 ends to a heald eye. The colour is varied.

GASSED YARNS-
Gassing is the process of passing yarn very rapidly through a series of Bunsen gas flames in order to burn off the projecting fibres and make the thread round and smooth and also brighter. Only the better qualities of yarn are gassed, such as that used for voiles, poplins, venetians, gabardines, many Egyptian qualities, etc. There is a loss of weight in gassing, which varies' about 5 to 8 per cent., so that if a 2/60's yarn is required 2/56's would be used. The gassed yarn is darker in shade afterwards, but should not be scorched.

GAUZE-
A pure gauze is a fabric in which the warp ends cross every pick, the doup ends being directly crossed from one side to the other of the crossed threads, and the weave is complete on 2 picks or 2 changes. Usually woven on dobby looms and two beams used, one heavily weighted for the crossed or ground threads, the other lightly weighted for the crossing threads. Lenos are often termed gauzes. This is not correct, since a leno is a cloth in which the crossing and crossed ends weave plain in parts.

GAZE DE VOILETTE-
A French production made from all silk yarns in fine reeds and closely picked. A pure, very fine and transparent gauze.

GENOA CORDS-
A corduroy cotton fabric made with a 3 or 4 end twill back.

GENOA PLUSH-
A cotton velveteen made with a twill back.

GENOA TWILL-
Another name for the 3-end twill. Its other names are Jean, cashmere, Jeannette and 3-shaft twill. Corduroys woven with this twill backing are known as Genoa cords, velveteens or plushes with same backing as "Genoa
plush."

GEORGETTES-
A very fine 8-shaft crepe weave fabric made in many qualities for South America, Canada, the home trade, etc. Super Egyptian yarns are used. Fair examples are 100x96, 80's/120's; 110x108, 70's/120's.

GIMP YARNS-
The original "gimp" had a centre core of fine wire or strong twine with silk twisted, round. Gimp yarns to-day consist of a central hard twisted thread or threads with soft spun thread or threads twisted round. The outside threads are generally coloured and twist round the core so closely as to completely hide it.

GINGHAM-
An all cotton plain weave fabric woven from dyed yarns in stripes and checks. The widths, qualities, and designs are numerous, as nearly all plain checks or stripes can be placed under this heading.

GINGHAM, MADRAS-See Madras Gingham.

GINNING-
The object of ginning is to remove the seed from the cotton without damaging the fibre. The fibres cling to the seed very firmly, and their removal is always more or less rough and brutal, causing much broken and damaged fibre. Two general kinds of gins are used known as the “saw gin" and the "roller gin." The saw gin is best suited for short stapled cotton, while the roller gin is used
for both short and long staples.

GLACE-
A lustre fabric made from a fine cotton warp and a thicker mohair weft. The warp is heavily weighted, so that the weft does all the bending. Sometimes the cloth is figured. The term really means a glossy, lustrous surface. Also applied to silk fabrics in which the warp and weft are differently coloured, giving a shot effect.

GLEN URQUHART CHECKS-
A woollen or worsted cloth, 2 x 2 twill or matt weave. Both warp and weft are coloured, such as 2 dark. 2 light ends for, say, 24 threads, then 4 dark, 4 light for another 24 threads, weft pattern same as warp.

GLISSADES-
Good quality lining cloths used for the better class trade. The warp is of polished cotton and yarn dyed or bleached, from 120 to 160 ends per inch. Weft good quality, but not polished, 60 to 68 picks per inch, about 40's to 60's warp and 30's to 40's weft. Usually black ground with narrow white or coloured stripes. Brown grounds are also being made at the present time. The weave is generally an 8-shaft sateen.

GLORIA CLOTH-GLORIA SILK-
A half-silk fabric, silk warp and cotton weft or woollen weft, plain weave. Originally used for dusters but now made for umbrella cloths. Requires very careful weaving, since faults are plainly shown when finished.

GOBELINS TAPESTRY-
The very finest tapestry made, and is produced at the Gobelins factories in France, where this beautiful cloth has been made for over 300 years. The fabric is the product of art and great skill. Hand labour only being required means that one specimen takes a long time to weave. A high warp loom is used in which the warp is tightly stretched, the warp made from a thick, strong yarn, and into this is woven the variously coloured weft threads of soft wool. The wefts are beaten up very firmly so as to completely hide the warp, and form a rib length ways. The fabrics are double-faced and very expensive. Really gorgeous and artistic designs are woven.

GOBELINS TAPESTRY, IMITATION-
Many attempts have been made to imitate this tapestry, but none have been successful. The best is a very poor imitation. Mechanical skill cannot take the place of the artists who weave the real fabrics.

GORDON CORD-
Name given to a weave of a twilled cord character (See Cords.)

GOLF CLOTHS-
A honeycomb style fabric used for ladies' costumes. Raised on the back only to imitate woollens. Made from all cotton, in stripes and checks, with mercerised yarn stripes sometimes added. About 64 ends, 56 picks, 24's/10's and 2/40's mercerised when used, the weave being on 7 to 12 staves.

GRADUATED CHECKS-
Applies to a style of checking in which the checks are designed in a series of sizes from small to large. Many years ago largely used in the woollen trade in black and white combinations. To-day often used in cotton cloths with colour combinations of black and white, red and white, etc. bleached yarn being used.

GRANDRELLE-
A coloured shirting cloth in which coloured warp threads are introduced of two or three fold yarn known as "grandrelle yarn." Generally of the heavy drill character, with various colours of dyed yarns, 29in. to 33in. wide, in many qualities, bleached weft.

GRANDRELLE YARNS-
Are twist yarns made in wool, worsted, and cotton. Two or three threads are twisted together (generally two), one dyed blue, the other white. One of the threads is itself a double yarn of two colours. Used in the cotton trade for grandrelle shirting, and in many colours.

GRANITE WEAVE-
An effect produced to give a broken, irregular, all over appearance to a cloth, similar to crepes.

GRANITE PATTERNS-
Are designs made from the ordinary satin base and other adjoining ends lifted in regular order to give small broken effects. Largely used as a ground weave for jacquard designs.

GRASS BLEACH-
The oldest known method of bleaching, and still used for fine linen cloths. This method depends for its bleaching effect upon sunlight and the oxygen in the air. Requires a long time to get a good white, as it is simply exposure of the cloth in the open air.


GRECIAN QUILTS (See QUILTS).

GRECIAN WEAVE-
A honeycomb style of weave, but based on the diaper principle, so that a pattern is formed both sides of the cloth.

GREEK CHECKS-
A low quality check fabric, all cotton, about 64 x 56, 36/36's, made for the Near East markets in widths 48 splits, 36, and 29 single widths. The designs are of the tartan character, nearly all colour. The cloth is stiff finished.

GRENADA-
A black yarn dyed cotton warp with alpaca weft used for dress purposes. The weave is a 5-end satin weft twill, 3 down and 2 up.

GRENADINE-
This is a dress material of an open gauze-like weave. Made from hard twisted yarns; cotton, silk, and wool are made use of in the many qualities on the market. Yarns are dyed and of many colours. Stripes and checks are formed by crammed work, the stripes or checks being opaque and the groundwork being gauze.

GREYS-
All cotton cloths not containing bleached or dyed yarns are called greys, whether plain or fancy weaves.

GREY DRILLS-
All drills came under this term at one time, but gradually the term has come to be applied to the 3-shaft warp face weave, 2 up, 1 down, made from heavy yarns such as 12's to 24's warp and weft. These cloths are used for boot linings, suitings, etc.

GREY JEANS-
These are drills of lighter yarns than "grey drills," from 24's to 36's warp and weft, all cotton. Made in many widths and qualities.

GREY SHEETINGS (See SHEETINGS)-
The real sheetings are made 2 by 2 twill and up to 120in. wide. Waste sheeting: weft is condenser yarn. American sheetings are 30in. to 36in. wide, low reed and pick and 30's to 36's warp, 16's to 24's weft, plain weave. These are not sheetings at all, but a plain cloth.

GRINNY CLOTH-
A term used by both shippers and merchants to indicate that a cloth is very reedy; two or three ends being together and spaces between each two or three.

GROS DE NAPLES-
A well woven plain weave silk fabric made from good organzine silk.

GROS DES INDES-
Silk fabrics as Gros de Naples, but having coloured cross over stripes in the weft.

GROSGRAIN-
A weft rib half silk fabric, silk warp and cotton weft.

GROUND WEAVES-
That portion of a figured fabric which does not form figure.

GUINEA CLOTHS-
Grey cloths shipped to the French West African colonies. About 39in. wide, 80 ends, 80 picks, various yarns. The natives dye them blue.


GUMPTY SHEETING-
The plain weave grey sheeting cloth, 36 in. 40 yards, about 72 x 56, 34's/20's, used for the Indian trade.

GUNNY CLOTHS OR BAGS-
A very coarse canvas-like fabric, made from jute yarns. First made in India into bags for shipping purposes.

HABIT CLOTH-
A woollen fabric used for ladies' riding costumes. Made from all wool of good quality. Yarns are dyed dark blue and other dark shades. Almost any costume cloth of dark colour can come under this heading if of good quality.

HABUTAI-
A name given by the Japanese to a silk fabric made on hand looms in matting weave 2 ends and 2 picks working together. Also made plain weave, fine reed, and large number of picks. The cloth is very smooth and level and well woven.

HAIR CLOTH-
This fabric is woven from a very strong cotton warp, three-fold yarn and horse-hair weft. Other material, such as linen, has been used for the warp. About 32 ends per inch, and 80 to 100 picks. The weave is usually the 5-end satin. Horse-hair cannot be dyed, so for this cloth it is taken from the darkest horses, generally black, and is cut from both the tails and manes. The lengths vary from 30in. to 46in. When cut they are brushed together. A special loom is used fitted with mechanism for picking up the short lengths of hair and drawing them into the shed. The shuttle is the mechanism for doing this by means of a pair of nippers.

HAIR CORDS-
These are cotton cloths in which a single cord is run in the warp, the cords being about ¼ in. apart. Two beams are necessary. Yarns are about 36's twists 16's cords, 36's or 42's weft. Ends, picks, and lengths vary.

HAIR CORD MUSLIN-
A plain weave cloth woven with fine warp and weft and hair cords, ¼ in. to ½ in. apart.

HAIRLINES-
The true hairline is a check cloth woven double plain weave in white and black (or other colours) stripe and check, with white warp covered with white welt and black warp with black welt. Wefting is the same as the warp. Each line of colour in both warp and weft is equal to the width of one thread only. Cloths with lines in the warp only are not real hairlines, although generally termed as such.

HALF-DRESSED WARPS (See WARPS).

HANDLE-
This is a term used by both buyers and salesmen to denote the feel or handle of a cloth so far as its hardness, harshness, softness, smoothness, etc., are concerned.

HANK-
A fixed length of yarn which varies for different material. The cotton hank is 840yds., spun silk 840yds., worsted 560yds., wool 1,600yds., raw silk 1,000yds.

HANK SIZING-
A method of sizing used for coloured or white yarns, and those grey yarns that form part of stripe work. Weft yarn when sized is hank sized. Very small warps can be prepared by this method.

HARD TWIST-
All spun yarns have twist, but a hard twist yarn has more twist than usual, such extra twist or turns per inch are for some special purpose, such as for weaving voiles, gabardines, crepes, canvas, etc.

HARD WASTE (See WASTE).

HARLEQUIN STRIPES-
Plain weave cloths with striking colour combinations in the warp, the colours being brilliant and with no attempt at tone or harmony. As many as five or six different colours are used, generally 30 in. wide, and in many qualities. Washing colours only are used, as the cloth is finished and not bleached

HARNESS-
The harness of a jacquard machine is the series of cords and attachments used to make the pattern. It is built up of several parts ; the lingoes or weights at the bottom. To the lingoe is attached a cord called the bottom piece or "hanger," which is connected at its upper end to the eye or mail through which the warp end passes. From the mail and passing through the comber board is another cord called the top piece or "sleeper," and this is tied to the neck cord or band, the neck band being tied to the hook of the machine.

There are the following kinds of harness:

FULL HARNESS-Each thread can be lifted independently, because one thread of warp is drawn through each eye only.
PRESSURE HARNESS- Several threads are drawn through each eye.
HALF HARNESS- Only half the warp threads are drawn through the eyes, the other half are worked by heald shafts, and pass loosely between the harness cords.
SPLIT HARNESS- This is largely used in the silk trade. Two threads are worked by each hook for figure, the ground of the cloth being woven by other means.

HARNESS CHECKS-
A very low quality of lappet spot fabrics made in the Glasgow district. Lancashire makers as a rule think the cloth is too low in quality to weave on their looms. Various widths; about 48 ends, 48 picks per inch, 36's twist, 42's weft, checked with two picks, 14's or 16's yarn, in 1in., 2in. checks. The lappet spots are weft yarn. Bleached and finished "Scotch finish.”

HARNESS TWILLS-
The word harness is used by American manufacturers to signify shafts, thus a three-harness twill is a three shaft twill, a six harness twill a six-shaft twill, and so on.

HARVARDS-
A shirting cloth woven with the 2 by 2 twill weave and with coloured stripes. The genuine harvard has the 2 by 2 weave all through. There are many so-called harvards in which stripes of plain, matting, and other twills are used.

HARVARD TWILL-
In Colne and other coloured districts the 2 by 2 is known as the "harvard twill,"

HAUSA CHECKS-
An all colour cotton cloth made for the Hausa natives of Africa. Plain weave, warp pattern, about 10 ends dark indigo, 2 ends light indigo. with weft similar. The yarns are hard-twisted and weft-sized, which gives a harsh feel to the cloth. Usually made 28in. wide, 58 ends, 42 picks, 18's dark, 2/80's light indigo warp, 16's dark, 60's light indigo weft. Shipped in loom state in 10 yard ends.

HEALD-SHAFT-
This is composed of two wooden laths upon which are suspended a series of cords called healds. The healds may be loosely threaded on the shafts or knitted firmly on them. There is a small eye formed in the centre of each heald, through which a warp thread passes. Heald shafts are used to divide the warp threads so as to form a shed for the passage of the shuttle. Plain cloth can be woven on two heald shafts, but four are generally used. As many as 16 of these heald shafts are used in fancy weaving. Heald shafts are in the trade variously termed " healds,'' " staves," or shafts.

HEMP-
A fibre obtained from the stalk of the plant "Cannabis sativa." It is inferior in quality to flax, but stronger and easily bleached. It is grown in India, Italy, Russia, Poland, and many other countries. The better grades are used in the manufacture of carpets.

HENRIETTA-
A dress cloth woven from a silk warp and fine botany weft, 2 by 1 weft twill weave-high number of picks, finished soft and lustrous. It is a fine cashmere.

HERRING-BONE, FEATHER, ARROW-HEAD, OR POINTED TWILL-
This is a twill weave formed by having stripes opposing each other and giving the appearance of herring-bones. The stripes are made by reversing the direction of the twill, thus alternating a left with a right-hand twill.

HESSIAN-
A fabric of strong coarse jute or hemp yarns, plain weave, used as a packing material, also for bags.

HICKORY STRIPES-
An American term for a cotton cloth made from coarse coloured yarns, generally blue and white or brown and white, and twill weave. Used for working shirts and pants in many of the States.

HOLLANDAS-
An all cotton cloth made to imitate linen Hollands. The warp is all colour, blue and black stripes on a drab ground. Grey or drab coloured weft. Made in stripes and checks. The cloth is finished with a "linen finish," and creased when made up. Shipped to the Philippines. A common quality is 27 inches wide, 45 to 50 yards long, 52 ends, 56 picks, 20's warp, 20's weft, 9 ½ lb. 45 yards.

HOLLAND-
A fine linen cloth, plain weave, bleached or left grey and finished soft finish. Stripes and checks are made. Mostly used for window blinds and aprons, but many good qualities are made for dress purposes. A fabric is shipped to India as "holland" which is all cotton, woven from a bleached yarn warp and a blue and white twist weft, about 26 inches to 30 inches, 52/56 reed, 44/52 picks, 20's warp, 2/36's weft.

HOMESPUN-
The legal definition of this term is "cloth, the wool of which was hand spun and woven on hand-looms at home." They are coarse fabrics of tweed character.

HONEYCOMB-
This is a type of weave and not a fabric (see Honeycomb Weave). The term is, however, used to describe towels woven with this particular weave, also for dress goods woven from worsted and woollen yarns with the honeycomb weave.

HONEYCOMB WEAVE-
This is a fancy weave obtained by certain ends of warp and picks of weft floating for some distance to form ridges, with other threads working plain to form hollows. The weave is largely used in Bolton for quilts, toilet covers, etc., and in Heywood for towels. The Brighton and Grecian weaves are fancy adaptations of the honeycomb principle.

HOPSACK-
A matting weave 2 by 2 or 3 by 3, in which two ends and 2 picks, or 3 ends and 3 picks work together.

HUCKABACK-
A simple weave used for towels, glass cloths, etc. A rough surface is given to the cloth. It is obtained by short floats of warp and weft and a plain ground. The weave is now much used as a ground weave for fancies. When first introduced it was only used to weave hemp yarns into towels, etc. It can be woven on 3-heald shafts.

IMITATION RABBIT SKIN-
A variety of cotton velvet, but with a longer pile than most velvets. Generally 50 inches wide, and made from twofold warp yarn, about 2/28's and 28's or 30's weft, with 300 to 350 picks per inch. When cut after weaving the pile is very soft and thick. Dyed and finished to imitate rabbit skins.

IMPERIALS-
A heavy cotton fabric of the fustian class woven from good yarns and 8-end sateen base, 2 up 6 down. Generally dyed and raised on the face. The picks usually 3 to 5 times the number of warp ends. A standard make is 54 inches, 102 yards, 64 by 214, 2/20's/22's 102 lb., soft spun, super weft.

IMPERIAL SATEEN (See LAMBSKIN)-

INDENT ORDERS-
Most shippers send what are known as speculation patterns to their customers abroad, who may send an order on any pattern that suits their market, the quantity and price to be arranged, and this is called an indent order.

INGRAIN CARPETS-
These are usually 36 inches wide and made from two or threefold yarns. This class is the oldest form of machine-made carpet now woven. They are two-ply fabrics, and the pattern is formed by one cloth passing through the other-the two cloths being of different colours. Woven on jacquard looms which have vertical shuttle boxes for as many as six colours. They are very expensive, but very enduring, and either side can be used. Scotch or Kidderminster carpets come under this term.

INTERMEDIATE FRAME-
A sliver of cotton after leaving the draw frame is passed through the "slubbing," "intermediate," and “roving" frames. All these machines are used for the same object-that of attenuating the sliver until in a fit condition for spinning. They carry on the work of the drawing frame by still further doubling and drawing out the cotton, reducing irregularities, and adding to the fineness of the yarn. The intermediate frame produces finer material than the slubbing frame, but not so fine as the roving frame.

INDIAN CARPETS-
Carpets made by native Indians from wool, with silk inserted at times. Woven on native looms and entirely by hand. The colour and design are all in the weft. Colours are inserted as required by the design from bobbins and in the form of small tufts. They are very expensive.

INDIAN DIMITY-
A light muslin cloth with cords of thick yarn in the warp or in both warp and weft, forming cord checks. Various widths, 80's to 100's warp and weft, and 20's or 2/40's cords, plain weave, 72 by 72, and 8 cords per inch.

INDIAN LINEN-
This is simply a fine linen cloth from 28in. to 40in. wide, plain weave, 80 by 80 or more, about 80's to 90's linen yarns. The same cloth is used in the home trade for many purposes.

INDIGO PRINTS-
All cotton cloths dyed indigo blue with the pattern formed by either a resist or discharge process. This is a general term, and all indigo blue fabrics may come under it.

INGRAIN-
A wool term, which means that the wool used was dyed before spinning into yarn. Ingrain carpets were originally made from this style of yarn, but to-day dyed yarn is chiefly used.

IRISH CAMBRIC-(See CAMBRIC).

IRISHES-
A bleached cotton cloth of plain weave, about 70 by 66, 32's/28's, made in North Ireland. Finished rather stiffly with a starch finish and glazed. Originally the term indicated a pure linen cloth woven in Ireland but this has died out and "pure linen" is used instead when a fabric, is all linen.

ITALIAN CLOTH-
The real Italian cloth is made from a cotton warp and botany weft: woven in the Bradford district. The warp is yarn dyed black and the woven piece cross-dyed. The weave is a weft face satin very heavily picked to give an even smooth service. After finishing, the cloth has a beautiful and lasting gloss. A very large trade is done in all cotton Italians piece-dyed black. In many widths and qualities, 5-shaft sateen weave, weft face. Standard makes are :

36 inches, 90 yard, 72 by 120, 36's/40's super satin weft.
56 inches, 90 yards, 72 by 140, 36's/32's 41 lb.
56 inches, 90 yards, 72 by 144, 34's/28's 43 lb.

ITALIAN CORDS-
A striped cloth made for West and North Africa, in widths about 28 inches to 30 inches, 116 ends, 52 picks, 30's /24's. Twill stripes are formed every half-inch by cramming ends in the reed. The ground weave is the 3-shaft twill.

JACQUARDS-
Jacquards are pattern-making machines, and necessary for all designs having more than 16 to 20 warp ends in a repeat of the pattern. There are many varieties of jacquards, but they all come in two classes, known as single-
lift and double-lift machines. The single-lift is the simpler and the older, and consists of a number of upright hooks inside a framework which can be lifted by one set of knives or griffes. The warp ends controlled by the hooks lifted are moved to their highest point on each pick. The number of hooks determines the size of the pattern, thus, a 400-hook machine allows a pattern
on 400 warp ends to be woven. Double-lift machines have two sets of knives so arranged that when one set of hooks rises the other falls, thus saving time and power. Jacquards are made from 200 to 900 hooks for the Cotton
trade but up to 1,200 for silk work.

JACQUARD TIES-
The tie-up of a jacquard means the manner and order in which the threads of the jacquard mounting are tied up to the neck cords. Two systems are in general use, known as the "London tie" in which the cards are placed at one or both sides of the loom, and the "Norwich tie" where the cards are in the front or at the back or both back and front. In the London tie each row of harness threads has a half-twist between the comberboard and the machine, while in the Norwich tie they go straight.

JACONETS-
Are light cotton cloths of the lawn or muslin character, but are finished with a smooth cambric finish, slightly assisted, after bleaching. Qualities and widths are many. A good sample is 41 inches, 20 yards, 27 by 32 (4 down), 80's/90's. From 60 by 60 to 80 by 80 per inch and 46's/50's to 80's/100's yarns have been shipped as jaconets.

JAPANESE PONGEE-
A pure silk fabric, plain weave, made from fine yarns, fine reed, and same number of picks as there are ends, printed in Japanese or other styles. Manufactured in Japan. Imitations are made by French and Swiss silk manufacturers. (See Swiss and Lyonnesse Pongees.) The cloth is imported into Europe and printed there. Widths usually 22 in. to 25 in. The cloth is known as "Habutai” among the Japanese merchants.

JEANETTES-
A cloth similar to a jean, but usually finer yarns; also with a weft face, 3-shaft twill weave. Standard makes are: 37 in. 90 yds., 52 by 120, 36's/28's. 37 in. 90 yds., 52 by 84, 36's/36's. There is very little difference between jeans and jeanettes. Many makers make no distinction at all.

JEANS-
Cotton cloth generally dyed or bleached and used for linings. The weave is the 3-shaft twill, weft face, made in widths 27 in. to 44 in. A good shipping cloth for Egypt, Persia, and other markets is 42 in., 52 by 88, 36's/28's. If made warp face it is known as a drill and used for children's suitings, corsets, boot linings, etc. A good sample of this is 31 in. 100 yds., 91 by 62, 18's/28's twist way weft, 28 ½ lb.

JEANS, PEPERELL (See PEPERELL)-

JOBS-
Damaged goods of all kinds are termed jobs, and sold by weight as a rule to dealers calling themselves job merchants.

JOUY-
A French style of printing in small floral designs named after the French printer who first introduced the style. Jouy prints are now generally silk cloths manufactured and printed in France.

JUTE (CALCUTTA HEMP)-
A fibre principally used for canvas bags, cordage, mats, wrappers, etc. Very largely manufactured in India, where the bulk of the fibre is grown. A good trade is done in Dundee. The fibre is obtained from the bast of the Corchorus Capsularis, an annual plant grown from seed. The plant grows up to 17 ft. in height. The fibre is very strong, has a good lustre, is uniform in diameter, has good dyeing qualities, but when exposed to the weather soon deteriorates.

JUMBO COPS-
Large size cops of waste yarn used by waste manufacturers for weft. The cops are placed loosely inside the special shuttles, which have serrated sides to keep the cop in its place. No spindle is used, but the cop is strapped down. The weft is drawn from the inside of the cop.

KALMUCK-
A coarse woollen cloth, used for overcoats, made from rough yarns, and has no pattern.

KANIKIS (AFRICA)-
A plain woven cloth made 64 to 72 square 30's/30’s, with three or four grey cords down each selvedge of 2/14’s yarn. The cloth is dyed indigo blue. Yarns are of a rather low grade.

KAPOK-
This fibre is obtained from the white silk-cotton tree grown in the East Indies (Erisdendron, anfractuosum); it is of no use for spinning, and is principally used as a stuffing material for pillows, etc. It is very soft, smooth, light in weight, and very buoyant in water.

KEMP, KEMPY WOOL-
A defect which is most frequently met with in badly bred wools, and consists of thickened parts of the fibre, which are opaque and have no structure. These opaque parts do not absorb dyes, and show very clearly in the finished fabric.

KENTUCKY JEANS-
The ordinary five-shaft satin weave, weft face, made in cheap qualities with a cotton warp and wool weft. An American term.

KERSEYMERE-
A closely woven woollen cloth made in 30 to 36 inch widths from the best quality yarns. Weave 7, 9, or 11 end serge twill. Finished with a very close nap and used for coatings.

KERSEYS-
A coarse woollen fabric of a serge twill weave with bold ribs. A cheaper cloth than kerseymere.

KHAIKI-
A Japanese cloth made from fine silk yarns and in a plain weave.

KHAKI DRILLS-
A good quality florentine drill cloth, four-shaft weave, such as 88 x 72 20's/18's dyed khaki colour and used for military purposes. Widths vary from 27 to 40 inches.

KIDDERMINSTER CARPETS-
A carpet without a pile. Also known as Scotch carpets and in America as Ingrain carpets. They are double plain fabrics, each fabric of a different colour. One cloth is carried through the other for ornament, and this transposing of the two cloths very firmly binds them together. The finished carpet is reversible. This style of carpet was the first to be made on the loom in this country. The best qualities are made from all wool yarn-cotton warps being used to make inferior qualities. Many Scotch made carpets are three-ply cloths-the third cloth being introduced to give a thicker fabric, and by using other colours gives much richer designs.

KID-FINISHED CAMBRIC-
A good quality cambric about 30 in. wide 110 x 100 50's/60's Egyptian yarns, with a very soft finish. Used as linings for ladies' summer dresses.

KIKOIS (AFRICA)-
A cloth similar to loongies, but made in stripes only, about 32 to 40 inches wide and 4 yards to 8 yards long. Often the cloth is woven with coloured borders. The qualities vary considerably. Some are made with silk borders for the use of the wealthier natives.

KILOYES-
A cloth used for shawls, 39 to 48 inches wide. with fancy headings at each end and coloured borders down each side, generally fringed each end. Made in many lengths and qualities.

KNICKERBOCKER YARN-
A fancy yarn with spots or small stripes in colour. The spotting material is flecked on to the carder. Several colours can be used.

KNOP YARN-
A yarn with lumps or thick places appearing at intervals; either same colour as the bulk or other colours are introduced. A foundation thread is twisted with another, which is very loosely and irregularly twisted, and the irregularities show up in small lumps. This fancy yarn is seen in fancy poplins and other cotton fabrics.

KOBAI-
A Japanese term given to a plain silk or mixture fabric with a cord stripe. The warp and cords are often of cotton, but the weft always silk.

KUTARS (INDIAN)-
A gauze cloth, very open, in which stripes are formed of leno effects on a plain ground. The term is seldom used here, as the cloth would be called leno stripes.

LACE STRIPE CLOTH-
A plain cloth with mock leno stripes made on dobby looms. The ground is about 40's/36's and the figuring either of the same yarns or 30's to 36's, in which case two beams are used.


LADDER TAPES-
These are tapes used for blinds known as Venetian window blinds, and up to about 1878 they were made by hand from two broad tapes with the narrow ones stitched on at the required distances. The patent was the invention of the late James Carr, in Manchester, and the British patent was issued to him on the 25th day of January, 1869, for manufacturing the complete ladder tape. Owing to the large demand, a licence was issued to a firm in the Midlands in 1874 to manufacture under Mr. Carr's patent. In 1878 Carl Vorwerk made a slight improvement to a part of the loom in which these ladder webs ware being then made. The two broad outer tapes, with the required number of narrow cross tapes, are woven together. The narrow tapes are placed alternately near to the left and the right hand edges of the broad tapes in order to leave a space for the cord which draws up the blind.


LAMBSKIN-
A heavy sateen cloth, with weft preponderating over warp in a ratio of 6:2 or even more. A strong twofold warp is used, such as 2/18's or 2/20's, with 18's to 24's weft, woven in a 60-reed and 400 to 480 picks per inch. The cloth is raised on the back to imitate lambskin, and owing to the long weft floats the result is good. When the cloth is not raised it is known as the Imperial sateen.


LAPPAS-
A coloured stripe cloth made for South and East Africa. Usually 36 in. wide and in 6 yard ends, shipped loom state or soft finish. Woven matting, 96 ends, 32 picks per inch, 28's black, 24's red, 24's yellow warp yarns, 22's weft. Weft is grey, and sometimes sized to give a rough native feel to the cloth. The warp is all colour, but the black used sparingly. Stripes vary in widths.

LAPPETS-
Cloths of a light muslin character in plain weave for the ground and figuring produced by a more or less zigzag arrangement. The figuring threads are extra warp ends, and do not interweave with any other warp ends, but are simply held in position by passing underneath picks of weft. Each spot or other figure is made from one thread only, which is drawn through the eye of a needle fixed in a frame in front of the reed. The movement of the frame is controlled by a groove cut in a circular disc of wood. This wheel or disc, known as the "Scotch lappet motion," is the most generally used, and a specially-built loom is required. The figuring or "whip" thread is not bound into the cloth, but floats from one extreme edge of the outline to the other. If spots are woven, the whip thread floats from one spot to the next, and the floating portion is cut away after weaving. The general appearance is that of embroidery, and the figuring is on one side of the cloth only.

LASTINGS-
A very stout twill cloth woven from hard-twisted yarns, generally cotton all through, although wool is used at times. It is used chiefly for boot and bag linings when of the twill weave. This style of cloth when figured is used for church furniture. When dyed and of plain weave it is shipped to parts of South America as "lastings"-usually with a stiff glaze finish, and used as trouserings by the natives. Made in various widths and qualities. A popular quality is 24 in., 64 x 60 ends and picks, 20's warp, 24's weft.

LAWNS-
Very fine plain cloths. The original lawn was a fine linen cloth used for dress purposes. This cloth when now made is known as "linen lawn."

INDIAN LAWN is from 30 in. to 36 in. wide, 24 yards long, 72 x 64, calendered and made up book fold, or if 40 in. wide in long fold; yarns about 50/60 to 60/80's both American and Egyptian yarns.
VICTORIA LAWN is a stiff-finished lawn, 24/26 in. wide, 92 x 92, and similar yarns to Indian lawns.
PERSIAN LAWNS: 32 in. 24 yds., 100 x 100, 60's/80's and finer. Egyptian yarns, soft finish.
BISHOPS LAWN: A bleached and finished cloth with a blue tint, similar quality to Victoria lawn.

LEA-
The divisions into which a hank (840 yards) of yarn is tied during reeling, and each lea measures 120 yards, so there are seven leas in one cotton hank. Linen manufacturers use the term to indicate the counts of yarn, and each lea is 300 yards long, which is the linen hank.

LEASE-
The divisions of the threads in a warp, as 1 and 1, 2 and 2, and so on.

LEATHER CLOTH-
A kind of melton fabric woven from a cotton warp, two ends as one, and a wool weft, plain weave, and generally dyed black or very dark grey. Made principally in Yorkshire from very heavy yarns

LENO-
A fabric in which an open effect is woven to resemble lace stripes, and is obtained by certain ends making a half turn around others. Many very fancy and beautiful cloths are produced by combining this cross-weaving with other weaves. This term is applied generally to all light fabrics in which the cross-weaving principle is used. Gauzes are called lenos by some makers and shippers.

LENO BROCADE-
This is a brocade cloth with figuring formed by introducing the gauze weave. Many varieties and qualities are made. Doups and healds are necessary in addition to a jacquard machine.

LENO, CELLULAR (See Cellular).

LEVANTINE-
A four-shaft weft face twill cloth used for linings, and finished after dyeing with a glaze surface. It was brought here from the Levant and originally made from silk. The Lancashire imitation is a poor one.

LIFTS: LIFTING-
The operation of raising the various heald shafts in their required order to form the pattern is termed "lifting" and the various styles of lifting are termed "lifts" such as straight lift, reduced lift, pointed lift.

LINDIANA-
A fine worsted warp and silk weft fabric of crepe weave woven from dyed worsted yarn and white silk weft. The term is seldom used to-day.

LINED CLOTHS-
Such fabrics as travelling rags, cloakings, overcoatings, etc., which consist of a face cloth of one design or colour to which is woven another cloth as a lining and of a different design or colour. A product of Yorkshire, and generally made from heavy worsted and wool yarns. Cotton is at times used to cheapen the fabric.

LINEN-
One of the oldest known fabrics is that made from flax yarn and called linen. The Egyptians thought linen was an emblem of purity, and used it as a wrapping for their dead. By the term linen is generally meant a medium weight cloth, plain, weave, and one that takes the same standing in the linen trade as calico does in the cotton trade.

LINEN YARN-
Linen or flax yarn is very strong and weaves well. It has no elasticity, and can be bleached to a snowy white. (See also Flax.)

LINEN, INDIAN. (See INDIAN LINEN.)

LININGS
Fabrics used for dress and coat linings. The term does not indicate any particular cloth, but is a general term and includes such linings as glissades, Italians, Beatrice twill linings, levantines, etc. [SG note: In 1978 at Bancroft shed in Barnoldswick we wove a lining cloth for the Bradford suiting trade that was called Polyzone. The warp was in three sections; the first was all polyester, the middle was polyester/hair base yarn, the third was all hair base. The weft was either cotton or polyester. The result was a cloth with three grades of stiffness and I understand it was used as a backing/stiffening cloth in suitings.

LININGS, ORLEANS. (See ORLEANS LININGS.)

LININGS, PADDED BACK. (See PADDED BACK.) LININGS, TAFFETA. (See TAFFETA LININGS.)

LIOTARDO STRIPES-
A plain weave cloth made for South America, generally 26 in. wide and in 50 yard pieces, stiff finish, to weigh 104 lb.; 60 reed, 60 picks per inch, 26's/40's warp in red and blue stripes, 5 to 10 per cent. colour, heavy sized warp.

LISLE THREAD-
Yarns made from the finest of long staple cotton, hard twisted, and gassed to give a smooth surface.

LIST-
The edge or selvedge of any cloth

LLAMA SHIRTING-
A super quality cloth used for shirtings and blouses, made from a union warp and weft containing from 50 to 80 per cent. wool in both. About 44 to 50 ends and picks per inch, and 16's to 20's warp, 12's to 18's weft (worsted counts). Made plain, twill, and in stripes,

LOADING-A term used to imply that artificial weighting has been put into a cloth, such as starch, china clay, dextrine, magnesium chloride, etc.

LONDON SHRUNK (WOOLLEN PROCESS)-
The dry cloth to be shrunk is folded between an upper and lower layer of wet cloth. The cloth is then dried naturally, and afterwards pressed by cold hydraulic power. Different finishers make their own variations and additions in order to get a pure soft handle with a deader appearance than the fabric has before treatment.

LONGCLOTH-
A plain or twill cloth used for underwear purposes, bleached and pure finish. Usually 34 in. to, 36 in.. 36 yards long, and about 60 by 60 ends and picks, 30's and 30's. All particulars differ in various makes. Made for home trade, and export to India, China, etc. The original longcloth was a very fine one, and made from 60's/40's to 80's/60's super yarns and 96 by 90 ends and picks.

LONG ENDS-
An all-wool fabric of the four-end twill weave, usually 30 in. by 24 yards, bright red dyed, calender finish. A Yorkshire production.

LOOM DIVIDEND-
A constant number which governs the change wheel of a loom. When the dividend is divided by the picks required per quarter inch the quotient gives the number of teeth required in the change wheel to give that pick in the cloth.

LOOMING-
The operation of drawing the warp ends through the healds and reed which will be placed in the loom.

LOOMS, FAST AND LOOSE REED-
When a shuttle fails to enter the box there must be some arrangement to stop the loom, or a serious smash will occur through the shuttle being in the shed. In the fast reed loom this is done by means of a stop-rod and tongue coming into contact with the shoulder of the frog at the front of the loom. When the shuttle is in its box this tongue is lifted out of the way of the frog. This type of loom is used for slow running and the bulk of the Lancashire trade. With the loose reed loom, when the shuttle is trapped in the shed or fails to reach its box the reed is pushed out of its position, and the loom stops. Best suited for light goods and fast running looms.

LOONGYES, LOONGIES, LUNGIS-
The Indian cloth is generally 23 in. finished width and 4 ½ yds. long. The natives cut them into two, and stitch the two pieces together side by side. The African style is 32 in. to 40 in. wide and of several lengths from 2 yards upwards. Both styles are checks, rather broad, and of several colours, with a broad border at one selvedge. The border is all one colour and crammed in the reed. The cloth is used for men's dress.

LOOSE-BACK TOILET (See TOILETS)-
This style of toilet fabric is inferior to the usual one. The figuring is formed by the stitching back yarn being loose, which causes the face cloth to be raised. They are woven on jacquard looms with healds in front.

LOUISINE-
A very fine silk fabric shipped to China; crepe weave, and in many widths and qualities.

LUSTRAFIL-
See “Artificial Cotton”. [SG addition]

LUSTRES, LUSTRE DRESS FABRIC-
A twofold cotton warp dress fabric, plain weave, with mohair weft of rather coarse counts. The warp is yarn dyed and the cloth cross-dyed. During the finishing process the weft is thrown to the surface, entirely covering the warp by reason of the warp being pulled straight and the weft bending. This bending of the welt gives the lustre. All cotton cloths sold as lustres are a very poor imitation. They are woven from a bleached warp about 2/40's and a soft spun dyed weft about 12's. As many picks as possible are put in.

LUSTRE ORLEANS-
This is a name used principally by French traders for the alpaca fabric.

LYONNESSE PONGEES-
French imitation of the Japanese pongee, and at best a rather poor one.

LYONS VELVET-
A fast pile heavy velvet with a ground weave based on the 3 by 1 warp twill, but repeated on six picks. The loops are formed by the use of wires, there are three picks between each wire, which bind the pile ends very firmly, and two ground ends are used to one pile end. All the pile ends are raised over each wire. The cloth is principally woven on the continent.

MACANA CHECKS-
A plain weave cloth made for South America in small check designs of bright colours; shipped in a soft finish; 26 in. wide, 72 by 76, 26's/8's; the warp is woven two ends together. Also, made 48 by 76, 2/18's/8's, one end in a dent.

A home trade cloth sold under this name, also in small checks of bright colours, is made in various widths and qualities, one of which is 29 in., 96 by 96, 32/32. This is also shipped to China.

MADRAS-
A very light weight shirting fabric, plain weave, with narrow coloured warp stripes in either silk or mercerised cotton. Usually made from very good quality yarns, such as 60's/60's, both Egyptian, and 2/120's mercerised stripes, in widths 27 in. to 34 in. and 52 in. Many cloths are sold as "Madras" but the above described is the only true one.

MADRAS GINGHAM-
Very similar in yarns to Madras, but with much more colour, as much as 75 per cent. of colour in the stripes and 50 per cent. colour with checks. Used for fine shirtings, blouses, and children's wear.

MADRAS HANDKERCHIEFS-
A plain weave check cloth woven from yarns dyed with a loose top which during finishing bleeds off and stains the cloth. Also known as "Bleeding Checks"

MAGENTA GREYS-
A heavy sized plain grey cloth, shipped unfinished. Usually 36 in., 34 to 36 yards, with a broad heading of magenta coloured yarn at one or both ends. About 60 by 64 ends and picks, 32's/30's yarn.

MALINE-
The silk trade term for a tulle silk fabric. Made from very fine silk yarns and in a gauze weave.

MANILA HEMP (See ABACA)-

MARANHAM COTTON-
A Brazilian grown cotton with a good staple, harsh to the feel, wiry, and is a fair cotton for bleaching cloths. Will spin into yarns up to 50's.

MARLS-
A woollen fancy yarn produced from differently coloured rovings. The rovings are so blended that the finished yarn has the appearance of having been made from two differently coloured threads twisted together.

MARQUISETTE-
A plain cloth, low in reed and pick, resembling a voile. A sample cloth is 40 in. wide, 44 by 48 ends and picks, 60's/60's, both hard twisted, one in a dent.


MARSEILLE QUILTS-
A compound fabric consisting of two plain cloths joined together by stitches, so arranged as to produce a pattern. Between the two cloths are inserted wadding weft of coarse yarn. A jacquard machine and heald shafts are required to weave the cloth. Three-quarters of the warp threads are drawn only on the healds, and the remainder through the harness. Each card serves for ten picks, viz., four picks of fine weft for face cloth, four from same shuttle for back cloth, and two picks of coarse weft for wadding. The jacquard controls pattern and the stitching of the two cloths together. The cloth can be woven from one beam, but two beams allow the tension on the stitching threads to be more regular. This cloth is an imitation of an Eastern fabric used as quilts, and made from a pure plain woven cloth, two pieces of this cloth being placed together, one on the top of the other, and a thick wadding placed between, the whole being stitched together by hand. Where no stitches were used the cloth bulged owing to the wadding between.

MASALIA-
A nainsook style of fabric, but finished with a moiré or watered silk face.

MATELASSE-
A double or compound cloth used for vestings, mantles, etc. The figuring is developed by a variety of weaves, and is really a brocade face cloth. Wadding weft is used to give a raised appearance. This cloth differs from quiltings by having a brocade face with irregular floats. The whole of the warp, both face and back, is controlled by the jacquard. Cotton matelasse is usually two face, one back, both warp and weft, and the silk and wool varieties one face one back.

MATTS-
Fabrics in which one or both series of threads work two or more ends or picks together: such as 2 x 2, 3 x 3, or 4 x 4 ends and picks, and these are known as 2 x 2, 3 x 3, or 4 x 4 matts. The weave is plain and yarns coarse, such as 24's/18's.

MATT WEAVES-
The weaves used for matting cloth, such as canvas, matt shirtings, etc. Generally the 2 x 2 is used, but fancy dobby effects are introduced for variety.

MAYO TWILL (See CAMPBELL TWILL)-
An 8-end twill weave used principally for wool and worsted fabrics.

MEDICAL HUCK (also known as " DEVON HUCK," which see).

MEDIUMS-
A sized grey cloth of medium quality, very similar to domestics or sized shirtings.

MEDIUM STRIPES-
Cotton cloths woven in dobby looms on 10 shafts, with stripes formed by reversing the 5-end satin, such as 20 ends 4 x 1 weave, the, next 20 ends being 1 x 4 weave, quality about 72 x 68 36's/42's

MELANGE-
A fancy worsted yarn made from a printed sliver. During spinning the colour is mixed. Usually more than one colour is printed on the sliver in bands.

MELLOR'S UNION CORD-
A heavy cord cloth, all cotton, made on 8 shafts, and 20 picks to a repeat, 31 in. wide, and weighing 60 to 70 lb. for 98 yards. Yarns about 14's and 16's.

MELTON-
A heavy smooth woollen cloth made from a cotton warp and wool weft. Warp usually weaving matting; 50 to 56 in. wide and about 24 oz. per yard. Very heavily milled, and the cloth is raised and cropped.

MERCERISED COTTON-
A thread that gives an appearance of silk, and is made by treating cotton yarn under tension with caustic soda. This yarn is lustrous, and can be dyed in very beautiful shades.

MERCERISING-
A process to increase the lustre of cotton, and is based upon the fact that cotton fibre steeped in cold concentrated caustic soda loses its twisted tape-like form, and becomes round and partly transparent, and when treated under tension a good lustre is developed. Cloth or yarn can be mercerised.

MERINOES-
The merino sheep gives the finest of all wools up to 80's counts, which is very soft and white. The original merino fabric was woven from this wool, but now many so-called merinos have no trace of the merino wool. An all-wool fabric, with a twill face and back, dyed in colours, and variously made 25 to 27 inches from 64 x 36 to 120 x 96 ends and picks, 30's to 36's warp and 40's to 44's weft.

METRE-
The French measure of length, and is equivalent to 39.37079 inches.

MEXICANS-
A sized grey cotton cloth, plain weave, 32 to 36 in. wide, 24 yards long, 18 x 18 ends and picks per ¼ inch, 24's/20's warp and weft.

MILDEW-
A fungoid growth caused by fermentation set up by moisture, and heat. Whenever wet or damp material lies for any length of time in a warm temperature the best conditions for mildew development are obtained. This is frequently seen where pieces of cloth are piled in heaps, when the pressure prevents the air circulating and causes heat. Sized goods are the most troublesome, especially medium or heavy sized. Pure sized cloths are very seldom attacked.

MILLERAINISED FABRICS-
Cotton cloths which have been through a patent process known as ‘millerainising’. This is a system of hot pressing. The patentees claim that the fabrics thus treated do not shrink or cockle in washing, do not lose their shape or smoothness, and that damp, dust, and street dirt can be easily removed.

MILLERAYES-
A silk term for a warp rib fabric.

MITCHILINE, OR PATENT SATIN QUILTS-
A quilt woven on a jacquard loom with the use of healds. It is a double cloth, composed of two plains cloths very firmly interwoven. The design is made by the two cloths interchanging. The bulk of these quilts are woven from all grey yarns, and bleached afterwards, but colour is sometimes used for the ground effects with the figure showing in white. Many qualities are sold, and an average sample is 18's/36's for ground, with 36's/8's or 10's for figuring. The fine warp and weft weave together to form ground and make the firm binding, with the coarse warp and weft forming figure.

MIXING COTTON-
The first process carried out by the spinner, and is necessary to blend different varieties of raw cotton to obtain the required quality or colour or to neutralise irregularities of growth found more or less in all grades of cotton. The different bales of raw cotton are pulled into small pieces or into layers by the aid of pulling machines or "bale breakers".

MIXTURE YARN-
A fancy yarn used in the wool trade. It is made from fibres which have been dyed in various colours and these are mixed together to produce a desired tone.

MOCK LENO-
An imitation gauze partly obtained by the method of reeding and partly by the weave. The simplest form is reeded three in a dent, with 1 and 3 ends working together plain, and number 2 or the centre end working 3 up 3 down. The centre thread pulls the 3 threads together, giving the open effect aimed at. If an empty dent is left at each side the open effect is more pronounced,

MOHAIR-
The wool obtained from the Angora goat. It is lustrous, white, fine, wavy, and long. The term is applied to fabrics woven from mohair yarn.

MOHAIR BEAVER PLUSH-
A pile fabric made with a cotton back and mohair pile. The pile is long and harsh to the touch. The cotton warp is yarn dyed, and the piece cross-dyed usually dark brown. The pile works loose on the back, and gives a rough appearance with a full handle.

MOHAIR BRILLIANTINE-
A lustre dress fabric made from a two-fold cotton warp, yarn dyed, and mohair weft, cross-dyed after weaving, usually 30 inch, 35/40 yards, 2/60's cotton warp and 16's mohair weft. The cloth is very similar to "Lustre Orleans" but of a closer texture.

MOHAIR CONEY SEAL-
This is the Mohair Beaver Plush, but dyed black.

MOHAIR SICILIAN
Similar to Mohair Brilliantine, but much coarser in quality.

MOIRE-
A term applied to the watered or cloudy appearance given to cotton or other fabrics by the pressure of engraved rollers, which displaces or flattens the threads. The different finishers give trade names to their work; thus a moiré finished cloth is generally known by the trade term of a finisher.

MOIRE ANTIQUE-
A dress silk fabric used for waistcoats, dress goods, etc. Figured by a jacquard, usually in stripes on a satin ground, with a moiré repp stripe between each two figure stripes.

MOIRE A POIS-
A moiré repp cloth finished so as to show small spots in satin order.

MOIRE FRANCAISE-
A moiré repp finished in stripes.

MOIRE IMPERIAL-
Moiré repps finished in all over effects.

MOIRETTES-
These are moreens, but of lighter yarns, such as 28's/40's.

MOISTURE IN COTTON-
The Manchester Chamber of Commerce standard is 7.834 per cent., obtained as follows:-100 lb. of absolutely dry cotton will on exposure to the air be found to weigh 108 ½ lb., and, since this 108 ½ lb. contains 8 ½ lb. of moisture, 100 lb. will contain 7.834 per cent. of moisture.

MOLESKINS-
An all-cotton fustian cloth with a great number of picks raised before dyeing. Used for workmen's clothing where very hard wear is required. This cloth, with the weft cut to form pile, is a corduroy.

MOQUETTES-
A loop pile fabric produced by the aid of wires as for Brussels and other carpets, originally made by hand, in which case knotted tufts were used. Also applied to a pile or velvet cloth used by upholsterers, with pile one side only and either plain colours or figured.

MORDANTS-
Any chemical substance used by dyers to fix colours to yarn or cloth.

MOREEN-
A repp cloth woven from a thick cotton warp, and afterwards finished with a moiré finish. The weft is much finer than the warp, and twice to three times as many picks as ends are used. Standard makes are:

30 in. 118 yards 46 x 108. 2/24's/40's T.W. 29 lb.

28 in. 90 yards 44 x 100. 18's/40's T.W. 16 lb.

MOSQUITO NET-
A fine gauze cloth woven from very fine yarns. The yarns usually bleached. The picks are usually in "fives" and known as the 5-bar net; yarns vary from 38's/40's to 50's/60's.

MOTTLES-
Fabrics woven from dyed yarns, the yarns being mottled. A cotton velvet cord with a pile surface showing white and black mottled effect is also known under this name.

MOUTAN MUSLIN-
A very light dress cloth with lappet ornaments. The lappet effects are in coloured yarn, usually 3/40's super Egyptian, and the muslin ground 60's/80's, both combed and carded Egyptian yarns.

MOUSSELINE DE LAINE-
The French cloth is all wool, and generally printed in beautiful designs in many colours, and used for dress purposes. The weave is either plain or 2 x 1 twill. The English cloth is an imitation, and made from a cotton warp and worsted weft.

MOUSSELINE DE SOIE-
A chiffon fabric, all silk, very soft, and open in texture.

MULE SPINNING (See SPINNING)

MULE YARN-
This yarn is softer than ring spun yarn, and finer counts can be spun on the mule than on the ring frame. It is also more regular and makes a fuller cloth.

MULL-
A plain cloth made from fine yarns, used for dress and other purposes. The cloth is bleached and soft finished. Yarns 60's to 90's or 100's both warp and weft. China or Silk Mull is a union cloth of silk and cotton, and very fine in texture. India and Swiss Mulls are other names for the plain bleached mull.

MUNGO-
Recovered wool fibres obtained from hard wool rags, cuttings, and other wool waste. It is a low grade of shoddy.

MUSLIN-
A very light, open, plain cloth used for summer dress purposes made in many qualities. Made from super yarns. Hair muslin has fine cord stripes. Crammed muslin, same as Hair muslin. Muslins, lawns, mulls, and cambrics are all very similar in weave and yarns, but a muslin is perhaps the lowest in quality. All muslins are very soft to the touch. Book muslin and Tarleton muslin are not true muslins, since they are not soft but hard to the touch.

DACCA MUSLIN (See DACCA).

NAINSOOK-
A light cotton cloth, plain weave, in widths 30 to 32 in. Bleached and soft finished. A common quality is 108 x 96 40's/46's. The cloth can be termed a fine white shirting.

NANKEEN-
The real nankeen is a hand loom production from Nanking, China, made from a cotton locally grown which has a natural yellow tint. Woven 18 to 20 in. and plain weave. The Lancashire nankeen is a 3-end twill cloth made from ordinary cotton and dyed a yellowish drab. Used for pocketings and corsets.

NANKEEN TWILL-
The three-end twill 2 x 1 lift.

NAP-
The woolly face given to the surface of a cloth such as seen on nap overcoats or on flannels and flannelettes.

NATIVE STRIPES-
African cloths, all cotton, made to imitate the native made cloths, which are woven on hand looms in widths from 4 to 6 in. From six to ten of these narrow fabrics are sewn together, and the stitching shows up as a thick cord. The Lancashire maker imitates this as near as possible. Widths 30 to 40 in., 100 yards long, 52 ends, 40 picks, 8's grey, 10's colour warps, 7's waste weft. Cords every 4 in. made by three ends of the 8's warp working as one. They are shipped in the loom state in 6, 8, or 10 yard ends.

NEGATIVE SHEDDING-
A shedding motion that only raises or sinks the warp threads, the reverse movement being controlled by springs or pulleys.

NEGATIVE TAKE-UP OR DRAG MOTION-
A take-up motion generally used on looms for weaving such heavy fabrics as velvets, fustians, and other cloths where a large number of picks are woven. Weavers, as a rule, for weaving these fabrics are paid by the weight of weft woven, and not by the length of cloth and the number of picks per ¼ in.

NET, OR SPIDER LENO-
Openwork ondule designs made from the finest Egyptian cotton, or silk and wool, in which the doup cord used floats on the surface of the cloth, and is so interlaced as to form wavy effects. The cords are much thicker than the ground.

NICANIES-
A red and white matting cloth for the South American trade, Stiff finished, and shipped in 12-yard ends. Made in 30 and 42 in. widths, 104 ends, 36 picks, 30's/40's, sized warp, two ends working together. Warp stripes in red and white, white weft.

NIGGERHEAD CURL-
A fancy dress goods cloth made from a spiral yarn warp and a mixture weft (cotton and wool). The two threads forming the doubled warp yarn are both hard twisted. The design is a small spot on 12 shafts; piece dyed black or blue.

NODE-
A Yorkshire make of dress material with dobby effects. Fancy yarns are used, with small bunches of yarn twisted in.

NOILS-
The short rejected fibres obtained when combing worsted. These are spun again into a thread and generally dyed.

NOIL STRIPES-
Cloths made from noil yarns (silk or worsted). Two beams generally used, one for the ground ends dented 4 in a dent, the other for the thicker noil yarn dented 2 in a dent. The noil yarn is dyed in bright colours to form stripes. The weft is usually black dyed cotton, and the ground warp also black dyed cotton. Many of these cloths are shipped to the West Coast of Africa.

NOMINAL-
When this term is used it means that the particulars given are not as stated; for instance, 36 in. nominal may be 35 to 35 ½ in., 32's/40's nominal may be 36's/44's.

NORWICH CREPE-
A cloth very similar to Georgettes, and made from fine silk warp and cotton weft, the crepe being produced by the weave.

NUN'S COTTON-
An Indian cotton used locally. The crop is a small one, and the cotton is picked by hand. Nuns originally picked the cotton, and the yarn made from it was used to manufacture clothing for the priests.

NUN'S VEILING-
A fine plain weave fabric used for blouses. Dyed many shades. All-wool yarns of very good quality, 60 in. wide, 44 x 46 ends and picks, 48's/60's worsted, and many better qualities.

OATMEAL CLOTHS-
Fabrics woven from a fine warp and coarse weft, with a rough surface produced by an irregular crepe weave from 5 shafts upwards. The oatmeal weave is much used as a ground weave for dobby and jacquard effects.

OMBRE-
A term applied to design, and means stripes shading from light to dark. Produced by different tones of the same colour in the warp yarns.

ONDULE-
A wavy effect in the warp produced by special reeds, and often combined with leno weaves, which throw up the waves.

OPENING COTTON-
Owing to the pressure put on the cotton when made into bales the fibre is matted when the bales are opened. To open out the cotton it is beaten about in an enclosed drum bounded by grids. The impurities (leaf, sand, etc.) fall through the grids, while the light cotton fibres pass forward. [SG note: Also known as ‘willowing’]

ORGANDIE-
A thin, light, and transparent fabric in stripes or cheeks, no colour, but stripes of plain and satin, etc. Very fine yarns, such as 80's/100's. The satin effects are crammed in the reed. Usually have a stiff, glossy finish.

ORGANZINE SILK-
From silk yarns with a large number of turns per inch and two or more twisted together. Mainly used for warps. Care is taken not to give too much twist, since the twisting reduces the lustre. An Italian term meaning extra spun.

ORLEANS CLOTH-
Also known as Lustre Orleans, and is a plain weave cloth woven from a fine cotton warp and worsted weft. Used for dress purposes. Made in a fine reed, and very closely woven.

ORLEANS COTTON-
The best and most regular of the American cottons. Of good staple and colour, and can he spun into yarn as fine as 60's.

ORLEANS LININGS-
A fabric made in Bradford, and used as a lining for dress goods. Yarns are fine cotton warp, worsted weft, either plain weave or figured, and generally dyed.

OSMAN TURKISH TOWELS-
A terry or Turkish towel woven with a special motion where the reed is so worked as to allow 6 picks to be inserted for each horizontal row of loops, thus producing a stronger and firmer towel than the ordinary Turkish towel. It is a trade name.

OSNABURG-
This name was derived from the province of Osnaburg where the cloth was originally made from coarse flax yarns in a plain weave. It is now made from all cotton of very coarse counts, such as 14's to 24's warp, and 6's to 8's weft, or coarser, 28 to 40 ends, 32 to 36 picks. Shipped to West Africa, the Canary Islands, and other ports. When stripes or checks are introduced the cloth sells well in the Southern States of America.

OTTOMAN-
A dress fabric of warp rib weave from hard spun yarns. Originally silk was used, but now cotton is employed. The ribs are formed at intervals to give stripe effects. The rib is known as the ottoman cord, and is broad and flat. It is much used as a ground weave for figured poplins in which silk and wool or silk and cotton are the yarns.

OVERCHECKS-
Indicates a check design introduced over a ground cheek. Generally the over check is of a different colour.

OVERPICK-
The method of picking in which the picking stick is caused to move through the arc of a circle over the top of the shuttle box.

OXFORDS-
All cotton shirting cloths, plain weave, with two ends working as one. Fancy effects are introduced in colour yarns forming stripes, or the dobby machine is used. Yarns are of good quality, and vary from 24's to 30's warp and 12's to 16's weft, and from 70 to 100 ends and 44 to 50 picks.

PADDED-BACK LININGS-
Twill weave all-cotton cloths of many qualities and widths. Printed both sides, on the face with the fancy pattern, and on the back they are printed black to prevent the face pattern showing through. Cheap quality, 40 in. 64 yds. 72 x 72 36'is/38's. Medium quality, 40 in. 64 yds. 72 x 96 34's/34's.

PAD-DYEING-
The system of dyeing in which the cloth passes through a series of dye vats instead of lying in the dye, as is the case with ordinary dyeing. The object of the two systems is the same, but pad-dyeing is quicker.

PALENBANGS-
Same as Sarongs, but woven in different lengths and headings.

PANAMA CANVAS-
An all-cotton cloth woven from dyed yarns in a plain matt weave, double ends and double picks. 36 in. 80 yards 60 x 60 20's/16's, and many other qualities.

PANAMA ZEPHYRS-
Dobby cloths on 12 to 16 shafts, in, coloured stripe and small figured effects. They are bleached, and some also dyed in light colours, such as cream, yellow, light blue. Shipped to South America, Egypt, Persia, etc. 26 ½ in. 100 yds. 72 x 72, 36's/32's, 30's colour.

PANNE-
Derived from the French word "panne"=plush and is a light velvet with a flattened pile. The ground warp is a good quality two-fold cotton yarn, pile warp of spun silk and the weft a twofold cotton. The weave is arranged three picks to one wire, and two ground ends to one pile, the pile is raised over each wire and very firmly bound by the three picks.

PANNING-
This cloth is a papoon woven in designs of stripe and check effects to meet requirements of the Siamese for dress purposes.

PAPOON-
A plain cloth with warp and weft yarns of different colours, such as red and blue. Also made in checks.

PARAMATTAS-
Originally applied to a dress goods fabric made from paramatta wool and silk. It is now made with a cotton warp and botany weft, 2 x 1 weft twill. The cloth is used for proofing.(Also see Coburg.)

PATADEONES-
Another name for Sarongs given to the cloth when shipped to the Philippines. Made in stripes and checks, and when finished cut into 6-yard ends.

PATENT AXMINSTER CARPETS-
A superior class of carpet made on the chenille principle. They are made to any width and length, with borders and cross borders, and woven in one piece. Four or five warps are used of hemp, cotton, and other fibres. The chenille weft is so made that all the fibres project in one direction; about 7 picks per inch are inserted, with two ground picks of ordinary yarn between each two. The chenille is put in by hand, and then combed forward to get all the pile straight. This chenille has its tufts made from wool or silk noil on a super quality cotton base. The woven carpets are sheared to level the pile.

PATENT SATINS-
Are not satins at all, but a quilting fabric. It is also known as the "Mitcheline Fabric". Made from two plain cloths on jacquard looms, one cloth has a fine warp and coarse weft, the other a coarse warp and fine weft. The two cloths so weave together that a raised figure of the coarse weft is formed upon a fine plain ground. The set is 2 face 1 back. The coarse weft varies from 4's to a coarse "bump" yarn.

PATENT VELVETS-
A weft pile velvet cloth made in a cord weave. When cut and finished a round cord effect is prominent.

PAULY SILK-
An artificial silk manufactured by dissolving cellulose in Schweitzer's solution. It is not so lustrous as some of the better known art silks, and when wet is rather brittle.

PEAU DE CYGNE (Skin of the Swan)-
A very fine silk fabric in a crepe effect, close weave and fine counts. Manufactured and finished in a glossy style by French makers.

PEAU DE SOIE (Skin of Silk)-
A fancy silk cloth made on a satin base on 8 shafts from natural silks. The weave effect has a rib appearance from selvedge to selvedge and the cloth is reversible. Of French make and finish.

PEGGING, OR TIE-UP (See TIE-UP).

PEGGING PLAN-
This is really the weaving plan, and is a plan showing the order for putting pegs in the dobby lags, or gives the setting for the tappets. Other terms for the same thing are:- "weaving plan", "tappet plan", "lifting plan" or "tie-up".

PEKIN-
This term really indicates a design in which stripes of equal width in white and colours are designed. A silk cloth known as "pekin" is a dress fabric with broad stripes of satin alternating with the same width of stripes of a white repp.

PEKIN NOUVEAUTE-
A pekin fabric with the stripes separated by a heavy raised cord. The cord is a two, or three fold yarn, each thread of the compound cord being of a different colour.

PEKIN STRIPES-
The term given to stripe fabrics in which the different coloured stripes are all the same width; generally silk cloths are meant, but cotton pekin stripes have been shipped. The goods are for the China markets.

PEKIN VELOURS-
A French cloth made from silk warp and cotton weft, fine yarns, close weave, in the pekin stripe style, with narrow stripes of velvet introduced.

PEPERELL JEANS, OR DRILLS-
The best of drills made from super yarns and very well woven are known as Pepperell drills. An American drill known by this term is an ordinary drill or jean, made originally by the American company of that name and shipped to India and other markets.

PERCALE-
A super yarn cambric, generally bleached, printed and finished without gloss. The best qualities are made in France. Usually 34 to 36 inches wide. 120 x 120, 60's/50's to 40's/50's.

PERCALE STRIPES-
A South American term for shirting stripes such as 30/1 in, 40 yards finished, 74 x 74, 36's/34's, with 10 ends, 30's colour, and 4 cords 2/16's per inch. Designs are all small patterns in opal, indigo, black, helio, brown, and green. The grey width is 32 ½ in., and the cloth is bleached and slightly assisted in the finish.

PERCALINE-
A plain cambric cloth used for shirts and dress purposes. A finer cloth than percale, but has a stiff, glossy finish. Generally bleached, but also piece dyed.

PERSIAN CARPETS-
Hand made by Persian and Indian natives. The looms are of very simple construction. There are rollers at the top and bottom of the frame and on these are stretched the threads for the warp or ground. Tufts of coloured woollen yarn are knotted on the warp threads and over each row of tufts a wool weft is passed and beaten well up for binding. The carpets are very costly and of very elaborate designs and very durable.

PERSIAN CORDS-
A plain weave cloth with a pattern formed by various warp ends working in twos forming cords. A cotton warp and worsted weft are generally used. Also known as the “Ottoman Cord".

PERMANIS COTTON-
A variety of Brazilian cotton grown in Pernambuco. It is of fair staple, but harsh to the feel, and if used alone gives a wiry yarn.

PERUVIAN CLOTH-
A cloth much used for table covers. About 66 to 72 inches wide, made from heavy linen yarns dyed in dark shades of red, blue, brown, etc. Woven plain, but embroidered afterwards. Of Peruvian manufacture.

PERUVIAN COTTON-
A variety grown in Peru of good staple and both hard and soft nature. Best adapted for mixing. The hard variety is known as "Rough Peruvian" and the soft as "Soft Peruvian".

PETERSHAM CLOTH-
A heavy woollen overcoating cloth, generally indigo dyed.

PICK-
One single thread of weft yarn passing from selvedge to selvedge.

PICK-AND-PICK-
This method of picking requires looms with multiple boxes at each side. The term means the weaving of single picks of different colour or different counts of yarn.

PICK-FINDING-
Turning back the loom so as to un-weave the cloth to find a broken pick, which is removed. This operation is very necessary in many fabrics, such as poplins, piques, repps, in any dobby cloths, and brocades, etc.

PICKING-
The operation of projecting the shuttle from side to side of the loom through the division in the warp threads. This is done by the overpick or underpick motions. The overpick is suitable for quick-running looms, whereas the underpick is best for heavy or slow looms.

PIECE-GOODS-
A general term for all cloths in long lengths from about 36 yards upwards.

PILE FABRICS-
A general term applied to velvets, plushes, corduroys, terry cloths, carpets, fustians, etc. The pile is made by weaving loops on the surface of the cloth. When these loops are cut through they form the surface we know as velvet; when left uncut the cloths are such as corduroys, terry towels, etc.

PILLOW CASES WOVEN (See BAGS)

PILOT CLOTH-
A woollen goods term, and given to the indigo blue dyed heavy overcoating cloth used for seamen's coats, etc.

PANA CLOTH-
A fabric made by the natives of Manila from threads obtained from the leaves of the pineapple plant. The threads are not spun at all, and are very similar in appearance and characteristics to horsehair when woven.

PIQUE-
Dobby cloths composed of two warps and two wefts. The face warp is lightly weighted, and weaves with its weft in plain order. The other warp is heavily weighted, and stitches through the plain face cloth. The face cloth at the stitching parts is pulled down, and the unstitched rises and forms an embossed-like surface. The second weft is used as a wadding weft, and its purpose is to make the raised figuring more pronounced. The face warp and weft are usually finer than those used for stitching and wadding and in the proportion of 2 : 1, such as 2 ends 32's face 1 end 24's back. A popular cloth is made 40 in. 40/45 yds., 100 face 32's super Egyptian, 50 back 2/60's super American, 120 face picks 42's super Egyptian, and 64 back picks 18's super American. A dobby loom with drop boxes is required when designs up to 16 staves are wanted. Figuring of a more elaborate style requires a jacquard. The finer piques are rather expensive.

PLAIDS (See TARTANS).

PLAIN CLOTH-
A cloth in which both warp and weft work over one and under one all through.
A plain cloth can be woven on 2 heald shafts but 4 are generally used to give a more steady shedding and allow a coarser set of healds to be used. A perfect plain cloth has both sets of threads equal, and the number of ends and picks is equal, which also gives equal bending of the threads.

PLAINS, HEAVY SIZED (See T. CLOTHS)-
Are known as T. Cloths, Domestics, Wigans.

PLAINS, RAISING (See RAISING PLAINS).

PLISSE-
The French word for pleated, and is given to fabrics which have a narrow fold formed during weaving, and produced by the nature of the weave. Two warps are necessary. These cloths are also known as "Tacks".

PLUMETIS-
A light muslin cloth of very good quality and close plain weave, with small figures of many-coloured yarns, produced on swivel looms.

PLUSH-
This is the best of the pile fabrics, and has a pile of silk with a super cotton back. It is usually a weft pile cloth.

PLUSH VELVETEEN-
This is an ordinary velveteen cloth with a longer pile and is made in imitation of the real plush. All cotton is used.

POCHONNE DOUBLE CLOTH-
A Bradford dress cloth in brocade designs. Made from a worsted and a silk warp drawn in end and end, with a worsted and a silk weft woven pick and pick.

POCKETING, POCKETING TWILL-
A very good quality cotton cloth intended for pockets but used for many domestic purposes. Usually 2 x 2 twill weave in a fine reed, and made from super yarns. As a rule the cloth is sold in the loom state or with a soft finish. About 36 in. 100 yards, 120 x 80, 36's/40's.

POCKETS, WOVEN (See BAGS).

POILE DE CHEVRE-
A French made cloth woven from a fine dyed spun silk warp and angora weft, plain weave, soft finish. Used for dress purposes. The English imitation has a cotton warp and is made in the Yorkshire district.

POINT DRAFT-
A draft shows the order of lifting the healds to form a pattern, and point drafts take their name from their pointed form.

POINTILLE-
A designer's term meaning small dots. Many vestings are made with pointille figuring, obtained by bringing coloured threads of extra warp or weft to the face in small spots.

POLARIANS-
Astrakhan cloths with the loops cut.

POMPADOUR-
A designer's term used in the silk trade for small floral effects, generally in a dark crimson colouring.

PONCHO CLOTH-
A Yorkshire made cloth with a heavy cotton warp and a heavy wool weft. Made in 56 inch and wider, with a wide coloured wool selvedge. Cross dyed and well finished plain or twill weaves. A style of melton cloth.

PONGEE-
A very fine cloth made by the natives of many parts of India from natural coloured silk warp and weft, plain weave, very fine sett, such as 150 ends 150 picks. The Lancashire pongee is an all-cotton imitation made from the best of cotton and mercerised, dyed, and schreinered. A variety is 35 in. 120 yards, 98 x 104, 80's1120's.

POPLIN-
The real Irish poplin is a plain weave cloth, fine silk warp, coarser worsted weft which forms a rib effect. The Lancashire poplins are made from all cotton of super qualities, such as 28 in. 60 yds., 144 x 28. 32's/10's, or 164 x 58, 2/72's/2/50's.

POSITIVE SHEDDING-
A shedding motion that both raises and sinks the heald shafts, such as Woodcroft's tappet.

PRINTS-
A general term given to all calico or plain cloth that has printed designs on one or both sides, and in which the colour is pressed on the surface of the cloth.

PRINTERS-
Plain weave cotton cloths used for printing, made in many widths and qualities from pure yarns. There are two general classes, Burnley printers and Cheshire printers. Fair samples of each are: Burnley-32 in./116's, 16 x 16, 36/40. Cheshire-36 in./80's, 19 x 22, 36/40. The Cheshire cloth is the better cloth in every respect.

PRUNELLE TWILL-
The ordinary 2 x 1 warp twill weave.

PRUNELLA-
A light weight Yorkshire woollen cloth, generally with the prunelle twill weave; used for dress purposes.

PUNJUM-
A plain grey cloth, sized warp, 24 in. 36 yds., 16 x 14, 30/24 (or about). It is a Mexican cloth but made up in longer lengths.

PULLICATES-
A style of Madras handkerchief, generally with yellow or orange coloured grounds in check designs. Made for Mexico, Brazil, etc.

PYJAMA STRIPES-
Broad striped cloths, all cotton, cotton warp and wool weft, or all wool, used for pyjamas. The designs are broad coloured stripes on a white or cream ground.

QUILTS-
Quilts were first made by stitching two pieces of fine cloth together by hand, a layer of thick soft wadding being first placed between the two cloths. The term is now somewhat a general one, and includes most of the fabrics used for bed and table covers, as given below.

QUILTS, ALHAMBRA (See ALHAMBRA).

QUILTS, BROCHE-
In these fabrics the warp is generally in two colours drawn in end and end. The colours change to form ground and figure. The face of the fabric is warp, and the weft is practically covered.

QUILTS, GRECIAN-
These are reversible, and only one beam is used. No healds are required, and only one shuttle. The yarns are 3 or 4 fold, both warp and weft. Both ground and figure are developed in twill and satin weaves. The fabric has a smooth surface.

QUILTS, HONEYCOMB-
The ordinary honeycomb weaves are used for the groundwork, and figuring produced by twills and satins, or various sizes of honeycombs may be employed. Large and bold designs are the best to show up the peculiar cellular appearance of the weave. Both warp and weft yarns are 2 or 3 fold, and usually of bleached yarn. The fabrics can be woven from one beam and one shuttle.

QUILTS, SATIN-
So called because of the smooth raised figures. This is the most recent style of quilt. The cloth is made from two warps and two wefts, two beams and two shuttles being necessary. There are 2 figuring ends to one ground. The figure is made from a coarse weft and fine warp upon a smooth level ground of fine weft and coarse warp. The coarse warp is controlled by the jacquard and the fine warp by heald shafts. The cloth is piece bleached.

QUILTS,TOILET-
A style of heavy pique cloth, with a stitching warp controlled by jacquard to form pattern, a face warp being drawn through healds. Two, beams are used, one for the jacquard ends and the other for the heald ends. A fine and coarse weft also used, the fine for face and coarse for the padding to give weight. All grey yarns, the cloth being piece-bleached.

RAFIA, RAPHIA, OR RAFFIA FIBRE-
A fibre obtained from the leaves of the raphia palm, which is grown in Africa. Strips about 3 feet long and to 1 inch wide are usual, and these can be separated into finer fibres. Much used for mats and other plaited articles.

RAISED-BACKS-
A term given to cloths that are to be raised on the back, such as cotton pyjama cloth, flannelettes, cotton trouserings, etc. The weft in these fabrics is usually more at the back and soft spun.

RAISING PLAINS-
Cotton cloth plain weave, made with a hard spun twist and a coarse soft spun weft, such as 56 x 52 32's/10's condenser. Also known as "waste plains".

RAMIE OR RHEA FIBRE-
A very strong and durable fibre, and perhaps the strongest vegetable fibre used for textile purposes. It is grown in China, Japan, Java, India, etc. The leaves of this plant are green on both sides, while the lower surface of the China grass plant is white; otherwise both plants are similar. Ramie fibre is very white, has a high lustre, and can be separated into threads as fine as silk. The lengths vary from 4 inches to 72 inches. It can he dyed in very delicate shades. Much used for gas mantles. When woven the take-up is greater than cotton owing to the very slight elasticity the fibre has. Ramie counts are usually in the worsted system.

RAMIE CLOTHS-
Are extremely strong, can be bleached pure white or dyed in the moist delicate shades, and are smooth and very durable. Usually woven in plains or twills.

RATINES-
This term was first used by continental manufacturers for a rough frieze cloth used as a lining for dress goods, and made from rough wool. The ratines made in Yorkshire are all-wool fabrics in plain, fancy, and stripe effects for dress purposes. Usually made from spiral yarns in coarse reeds. The warps are 3's to 5's spiral yarn, weft 3's spiral, 16 to 20 ends and picks per inch. When stripes are made the colour yarn is not spiral. Always plain weave. Either dyed yarns are used, or grey yarns and the cloth piece-dyed.

RAYADILLOS-
Striped cotton cloths 44 to 50 inches wide, about 18 yards long, used for trouserings and dress purposes in the Philippines. Made in many qualities, and shipped stiff finish. Usually half-blue and half-bleached warp, with an all-colour weft. A narrow stripe of red or white yarn is woven at each selvedge.

RAYE-
The French word for "striped" patterns running down the piece.

REED (IN CLOTH)-
A term applied to the number of threads in a given space, usually ¼ inch and 1 inch. Shippers and makers understand the term "17 reed" to mean 64 ends per inch in the cloth, that is 4 down. When a cloth is indicated by a reed in the quarter-inch count it usually means that the number of threads per inch is 4 less than the reed number x by 4. If the ends per inch are stated, it means that number actual.

REED (IN LOOM)-
A metal comb fixed in a frame; the closeness of its teeth determines the fineness of a cloth; it keeps the warp threads in their positions, forms a guide for the shuttle to run against, and it beats up the weft to its place at the fell of the cloth.

REED. BASTARD, [SG NOTE]
A reed made with a section of dents at each side at a lower count than the main body. These reeds, if properly used, do not affect the cloth construction as the natural edge contraction restores the actual count. In skilled hands these reeds saved warp threads and resulted in good honest cloth. Seen by many as a pejorative term as they were sometimes used to make fraudulent cloth which was under count at the sides. Commonly used at Bancroft Shed in Barnoldswick by Jim Pollard.

REED COUNTING-
Fabrics contract from the width in reed about 6 per cent.; thus a 68 reed will count from 70 to 72 ends per inch in the cloth when on the table. Lancashire makers use principally reeds made on the Stockport system., which is named from the number of dents contained over 2 inches, each dent with 2 threads; thus a Stockport reed number also gives the number of ends per inch.

REED, ERDMANN-
A patented reed used to weave ondule or wave patterns in the weft. The wires are specially shaped, and the reeds are raised and depressed in the loom while weaving.

REED, FLEXIBLE-
Specially constructed reeds used for leno weaving where the douping threads are very thick. They are made by wrapping the wires on one side only with pitched cord, the other side being unpitched.

REED MARKS-
Faulty weaving shown by the warp threads running in "two's" or "three's." This fault is caused by the warp and weft threads not being close enough to cover the space left by the dents of the reed when the reed has left the fell of the cloth.

REEDS, ONDULE, FAN, OR PAQUET-
Specially constructed reeds used for weaving wave effects down the cloth. They are of many forms, and when weaving are raised and depressed as required for pattern.

REEDY CLOTH-
Cloth showing reed marks. (See also "reed marks” and "cover")

REELING-
The process of unwinding yarn from cops or bobbins and rewinding on to a revolving reel in the form of a skein or hank, in which form it is most suitable for export or for dyeing, bleaching, or mercerising.

REFORMER (See BULLHIDE).

REGATTAS-
A coloured stripe cotton cloth woven with the 2 x 1 twill weave-much used for boys' summer suits, washing dresses, aprons, etc. The coloured yarns are fast washing colours only, and sometimes bleached weft is used. When woven the cloth is usually soft finished. Colours are generally blue, red, or black. A popular cloth is made 27 in. and 32 in. wide, 64 ends, 60 picks, 24's warp, 20's weft.

REGRETTAS-
This cloth is the same as rayadillos, but made narrow widths, from 25 in., and in 27-yard lengths.

REPELLANTS-
An American term given to a so-called waterproof cloth used for coatings. They are made from a cotton warp and woollen weft, and in 4 or 6 end twill weaves weft faced cloths and finished with a nap face. Generally dyed.

REPPS-
The true repp is a plain woven fabric having both warp and weft arranged one thread fine, one thread coarse. The coarse ends are always lifted above the coarse picks, and fine ends over fine picks, thus producing prominent transverse ribs of a sharper nature than those of the poplin. Two beams are used, with the fine warp more heavily weighted than the coarse warp. Two shuttles also should be used, although many makers use one only and one weft.

RESIST PRINTING-
In this style of work the design is printed on the cloth in a substance that is afterwards removed, and this substance resists the dye into which the piece is placed. After dyeing and finishing the design shows in white on a coloured ground.

REVERSE OR TURN-OVER DESIGNS-
Designs which are turned over instead of repeating straight across. Each half is alike, but reversed. A 10inch pattern when turned over gives a 20-inch repeat.

REVERSED JEANETTES-
A good quality lining cloth woven with the 3 x 1 twill weave, and usually 52 to 56 inches in width-generally dyed black and schreiner finished. Many qualities are made such as: 76 x 150 32's/44's. 76 x 200 32/50E.

REVERSIBLE CRETONNES-
The ordinary cretonne cloth printed on both sides.

REVERSIBLES-
Nearly all textile fabrics which have a pattern on both sides and which will allow either side of the cloth to be used can be termed reversible. The term was originally given to tapestries and other compound fabrics made from two or more warps and wefts of different colours, and in which the design on one side was exactly opposite to the design on the other.

RIB CREPES OR CREPOLINE-
A warp rib fabric with the rib effect broken up into a crepe style.

RIBS-
The term given to certain cord effects produced by running two or more threads of warp together, or by using a thicker yarn, to form a distinct line. The thicker yarn gives the bolder cord, but the cloth requires two beams to weave. Fair examples are:- 33 ½ /100 yards, 76 x 86 26's/36's, with 8 cords per inch of 2/12's. 33 ½ /100 yards, 76 x 82. 26/36's. Cords made by running 3 ends of 26's together.

RICE WEAVES-
Fancy weaves formed from the simple 6 end and 8 end twills. These twills are broken at the middle and reversed, thus the 6 end rice weave is drawn in 1, 2, 3, 6, 5, 4, and the 8 end 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 7, 6, 5.

RING SPINNING-
The ring frame draws out the rove and spins it into yarn on the continuous system, the yarn usually being spun on bobbins or paper tubes. Ring spinning is cheaper than mule, but the yarn is more wiry and hard than mule yarn. The mule spins the best quality yarns at the present time. [SG note: This was written in the 1920s and some of the greatest changes the industry saw subsequently were in spinning methods and the quality of yarn produced. Many think that in some cases quality was sacrificed for production speed]

ROBES-
A printed twill cotton cloth originally used for wraps, and printed in beautiful all-over cashmere effects-the quality being 64 x 64 30's/34's to 36's/40's. The term now denotes style of design, which is very bold and full of colour, all the face of the fabric being covered with pattern.

ROQUETIN-
A French term given to a method of forming fancy edges to narrow fabrics. Figuring threads are wound on special bobbins and used as extra warp, very slightly weighted so that the yarn can be drawn off quickly. These extra warp or roquetin threads take the place of weft, and interweave with the ordinary warp at each side of the fabric.

ROUGHERS-
The term given to woollen cloths just after leaving the loom, as they usually appear to be coarse and look rough. Finishing takes this rough, fuzzy look off the fabrics.

ROUND TOP-
A heavy fustian cord made from good quality yarns about 20's/16's. The pattern is on 14 or 16 ends and 10 or 12 picks, with a larger number of picks than ends per inch. Much used for suitings for hard wear.

ROVING FRAME-
This machine reduces the slubbing to a finer thread or roving, makes it more regular and even, puts more twist in, and winds it upon a smaller tube. From this machine the material goes to the spinning frame.

ROYAL AXMINSTER CARPETS (See AXMINSTERS).

ROYALETTE-
A Yorkshire cloth woven usually in a 5-shaft satin weave, with weft face, from a cotton warp and wool weft. The warp is often 2/40's, and picks 100 to 150.

ROYAL RIBS-
An all cotton cloth, plain weave, with the whole of the warp threads working in pairs. The picks are about twice the number of ends per inch. Fair samples are 36 inch, 100 yards, 72 ends 140 picks, 28's/32's. 50 in. 90 yards, 68 x 136, 30's/36's. When dyed and finished the effect is that of a rib down the piece.

RUSSEL CORD-
A simple matting cloth woven from a cotton warp, weaving 2 ends together, and a fine worsted weft. The warp is weighted, and weft does the bending, giving a rib effect.

RUSSIAN CLOTH-
An all-wool costume cloth, plain weave, made in widths from 50 to 74 inches. The cloth is well shrunk.

RUSSIAN CORDS-
A combination of plain stripes with bold cords from ¼ to ½ inch apart. The plain effect is of a different colour to the cords. The cords form a very bold solid rib down the piece, and are made by working three thick cords together, with a douping thread of same colour crossing from side to side at every pick. This crossing thread is about three times the length of the ordinary warp.

SANTOS COTTON-
A cotton grown in Brazil from the Orleans variety of seed. It is rather harsh and wiry, and generally mixed with other varieties.

SARI, SARRIE-
A shawl or dhootie, usually 40 inches wide and 7 to 8 yards long, worn as a skirt by the native women of India and the East Indies. Made in many qualities, but all have a woven or printed border at each side and a very fancy deep heading at each end.

SARONG-
A cotton cloth, plain weave, with brilliant coloured stripes down the piece. Used in the East as scarves or loin cloths. Made with fancy headings at each end of the piece, which varies from 5 to 7 yards. The colours are fast to washing and light. Made about 60 to 66 ends and 44 to 50 picks, and 40's warp, 30's to 40's weft.

SATARAS-
A term not much used, denoting a woollen cloth woven with various rib weaves and given a lustrous finish.

SATEENS-
An all-cotton cloth largely made in Nelson and district, principally in 30 to 32 inches, 90 yards, 72 reed, 36's/38's yarns, and picks varying from 88 to 130 or more. The 5-end satin weave is used with weft face. A good twist is necessary, and a soft spun even weft, spun weft way. The cloth is mostly dyed and used for linings, though a great quantity is printed for dress goods. Generally woven with shaft looms, which make a better cloth than where dobbies are used.

SATEEN FINISH-
A finish to imitate satins. It is glossy, with as much lustre as possible and with a fairly crisp feel. The goods are usually starched, then dried on the tins, damped, and glazed on the calender.

SATEEN TICK-
A cotton cloth used for upholstery purposes, made from heavy yarns in stripes of colour and 5 or 8 shaft satin weave. About 98 x 56, 7's combed warp, and 14's super weft, warp face.

SATIN-
Originally a silk cloth with warp predominating over weft. The weft is completely covered, giving a very smooth warp face. The cotton satin distinguishes the warp face from the weft face sateen. The broken satin has the warp threads and weft threads so twisted that the slight twill of the satin weave is not visible. The satin weave is a style of weave in which no two consecutive warp ends intersect with successive picks - this gives a smooth, even face to the cloth, and allows one set of threads to be completely covered, the face threads being much greater in number than the other series of threads.

SATIN DRILLS (See DRILLS).

SATIN, FARMER'S (See FARMERS).

SATIN, PATENT (See PATENT).

SATINETS-
A cheap wool mixture cloth, usually printed in stripes and used for night gowns. About 30 per cent. cotton. An imitation of the true satin woven from very fine mercerised yarns. A fabric woven with a warp face on both sides. One warp only used, but each end is raised for a certain number of picks in satin order and then left down for the same number.

SAXONIES-
A Yorkshire cloth, used for cheap dress goods, made from wool and cotton mixture yarns. Usually dyed.

SCHREINER FINISH-
A special finish used largely in the finishing of black sateens, Italians, etc. It is obtained by means of specially engraved rollers used with heat and pressure, the engraving being very fine parallel lines,

SCOTCH CARPETS (See KIDDERMINSTER)-
Kidderminster, Ingrain, and Scotch carpets are the same fabric. They were originally made in Kidderminster, but now the chief centre is Scotland.

SCOTCH DRESSING-
A system of sizing used for very fine yarns and super cloths. It is much slower than slashing, as only 4 to 5 beams a day can be sized, against 14 to 15 slashed. The warp from the warper's beams passes through the size box, then through a revolving brush and over a fan in hot air, through another brush, and on to the weaver's beam. The brushing lays down the projecting fibres and makes a strong round thread. There is no matting or caking of the threads.

SCOTCH LAPPETS (See LAPPETS)-
The usual lappet cloths made in Scotland instead of Lancashire.

SCOTCH PLAIDS (See TARTANS).

SCRIBBLED-
When two or more kinds of fibres have been mixed before being spun into a thread they are said to have been "scribbled."

SCRIM-
A very loosely woven muslin style of cloth with fancy colour stripes. Intended for curtains or drapery. A very low muslin cloth is also given this name, and is used for hat linings by being pasted to another cloth generally made about 12 ends and picks per inch, from a poor grade of yarn, counts about 34's/28's.

SCUTCHING-
An operation in spinning that has two objects; that of a further removal of impurities after opening, and the formation of a lap web or sheet of cotton wound on to a roller.

SEA ISLANDS COTTON-
Perhaps the finest cotton known. It is grown on the islands near the coast of Georgia and the Carolinas, also on the coastline of the mainland. It is the most uniform and perfect of cotton, has a long staple, which is silky, fine and used for the best and finest of yarns.

SEAMLESS BAGS-
All cotton or hessian bags woven on looms in tubular form on the double-plain weave principle and heavy yarns.

SECTIONAL WARPING-
A system of warping for coloured stripe work from dyed yarns. The warps are made in sections, several sections being run simultaneously and side by side on to the weaver's beam. Grey warps for ball sizing are also made in sections.

SEED EFFECTS-
A designer's term for designs made up from very small dots.

SEERSUCKER (See CRINKLE).

SELVEDGE-
The edge of a piece of cloth. Selvedges are generally made from a different yarn to the body of the cloth, and as a rule two-fold yarn. A good selvedge usually means a good cloth.

SERGES-
This term originally meant woollen cloths woven in twill weaves on 8 or more shafts. The cotton trade now use it to denote a cloth woven in twill weave on 8 or more shafts from all-cotton yarns.

SET (TAPERS)-
The number of back beams required to make one weaver’s beam (or warp) is termed a set.

SHADOW CRETONNES-
A cotton cloth in large floral patterns, and used for curtains. Woven from a printed warp and coarse white or dyed weft. The effect when woven is a blurred one, and the finished cloth is reversible.

SHADOW STRIPES-
A cloth made into a stripe without change of weave. This is done by using warp yarns of different twists; one stripe has left hand and the next right hand twisted yarn. When dyed a shadowy effect is produced. The left hand twisted yarn is tinted in sizing with a loose colour to enable the manufacturer to distinguish it from his ordinary yarns.

SHALLOON-
A light woollen cloth used as linings for coats, liveries, etc., made from hard twisted yarns in 2 x 2 twill weave, usually 30 to 40 inches wide and 36 yards long. Dyed in browns and blacks principally.

SHANTUNG-
A Tussah silk cloth woven plain weave with a rough surface because the lumps and knots and other imperfections are retained on the yarns. Some of the China silk pongee cloths are given this name, especially those printed in large designs.

SHED-
The space between the two lines of warp threads caused by raising one portion and depressing the other. The mechanism employed for this raising and lowering, termed 'shedding motions’ are healds, tappets, dobbies, and jacquards. The shuttle passes through this space or shed and leaves a pick of weft behind which is beaten up by the reed and the shed changed for the next pick.

SHEDDING-
The operation of dividing the warp into two lines, so that the shuttle can pass between these lines. There are two general kinds of sheds-"open" and "closed." Open Shed-The warp threads are moved when the pattern requires it-from one line to the other. Closed Shed-The warp threads are all placed level in one line after each pick.

SHEETINGS-
Bed sheetings, sometimes called "Bolton sheetings” are made up to 120 inches wide in 2 x 2 twill, the warp and weft threads being equal from coarse yarns.
Condenser sheetings are same as above, but condenser weft is used. Ordinary sheetings are plain weave, in widths over 40 inches, and woven from fairly coarse yarns. American sheetings (see American). Brown sheetings (see Brown).

SHEPHERD'S CHECK-
This is a small check design in black and white yams, 2 x 2 and 4 x 4 twill weaves. The colours, warp, and weave are arranged to produce a fancy check.

SHIRTING-
When this term only is used the cloth meant is a plain weave, grey yarns heavily sized, 34 to 45 inches wide, various lengths from 30 to 40 yards, 64 to 72 reed and pick, and 36's to 40's warp and weft. Shipped loom state to India and China. This cloth, made from pure sized yarns, is bleached for the China, India, home trade, and other markets.

Harvard shirtings. (see Harvard).
Grandrille shirtings (see Grandrille).
Oxford shirtings (see Oxford).
Zephyr shirtings (see Zephyr).

SHODDY-
A recovered wool yarn manufactured from soft woollen rags which still retain felting properties, such as flannel, stockings, etc. A better grade of yarn than that known as "mungo". Prior to about 1813 these rags had very little value, but at the present time a very large trade is done in Yorkshire in converting the rags into yarn.

SHORT STICK-
This term denotes that the folding or plaiting of a piece of cloth is in Yards of 36 inches, thus 100’s means 100 laps of 36 inches each. The 36 inch yard is always understood when "Long Stick" or "L. S." is not mentioned.

SHOT-
The American term for picks; also used in some parts of Scotland. When applied to fabrics, as "shot silks" it indicates a fabric in which the warp and weft are differently coloured, so that according to the manner of holding the fabric the colours appear to change.

SACILIENNE-SICILIAN-
Originally a plain weave fabric made from silk warp and wool weft, heavy yarns and corded. A light silk fabric has this name, and is very similar to the "Mousseline-de-soie". Yorkshire manufacturers make a cloth under this term which is plain weave and from a fine cotton warp and a coarse counts mohair weft.

SIDA FIBRE-
A fibre obtained from the sida plant and grown in India. It closely resembles jute, but is longer, has fewer impurities and is easier to manufacture and much superior.

SIDEBAND CHECKS-
Plain weave all-cotton cloths made for the West African markets. From 27 to 30 inches wide, 27 yards long, about 64 x 64, 24's/28's. Shipped in a firm finish. The body of the cloth is made in small coloured checks, but there is a broad stripe at each side; the stripe is usually red.

SILENCE CLOTH (or TABLE FELTING)-
A table cover for use under the white cloth, usually 54 to 64 inches wide and 60 to 140 inches long, made in damask designs reversible, and from coarse cotton yarns. Used as a padding cloth.

SILESIAS-
Very low quality cotton cloths in twill or satin weaves. Heavily filled in finishing, has a smooth, glossy finish, and used as linings for cheap clothing. Printed sometimes in stripes. Reeds and picks vary, but always low yarns, 30's to 40's warp and 36's to 44's weft. Originally a low linen cloth made in Silesia in plain, twill and satin weaves.

SILK-
The most beautiful and strongest of fibres, and is produced by the silkworms of Bombay and Mori, Tussah and Arindy. Our supplies are chiefly from China, India, Italy, and the Levant. The Chinese were the first people to use this material about 2700 B.C. Silk is a solidified secretion of the worm, and has no cellular structure. More than 2,000 silkworms are required to produce 1 lb. of fibre. The filaments are drawn from the cocoons in pairs and twisted together. As many as 10 to 15 pairs are used to make one thread. Its characteristics are fineness, lustre, strength, elasticity, and it is easily dyed in the most beautiful colours.

SILK BEAVER-
A fabric intended to imitate the fur of the beaver. It is a velvet cloth, cotton warp and silk weft. The pile is very close. Dyed a rich brown.

SILK GLORIA (See GLORIA).

SILK SEAL-
A fabric very similar to the beaver silk, but dyed black. The floats are longer, and when cut give a longer pile.

SILK YARN COUNTS-
Spun Silk- The same as cotton. The number of hanks of 840 yards weighing 1 lb. give the counts. Twofold or other folds are indicated by the number of folds being placed after the counts thus, 40/2, 40/3, etc. Raw Silks.-The weight of 1,000 yards in drams gives the counts, thus if 1,000 yards weighs 6 drams it is known as "6-dram silk". Another system is the number of yards per ounce, thus 25,000 organzine or tram yarn means 25,000 yards per ounce. Denier System: The weight of 520 yards in deniers represents counts, thus 1 hank 520 yards weighs 20 deniers, the counts equal 20's denier. (533 ½ deniers = 1 ounce.)

SILK YARNS-
All raw silks are composed of a number of filaments twisted together, usually 8 to 12 to form a thread. These threads have a natural coating of gum, which gives the strength and elasticity, but reduces lustre. The gum must be boiled off if lustre is wanted, which may be done either in the yarn state or when woven in cloth. Silk yarns are divided into two classes, Thrown Silk and Spun Silk, the first being yarns that are made by the processes of reeling and throwing, and the second consisting of yarns spun from waste silk.

Thrown Silk, or net silk, is again divided into organzine and tram yarns, organzine being made from he most perfect cocoons, and used for warps. Tram is made from the inferior cocoons, and used as weft.

All silk contains very nearly half its weight of natural gum, and according to the amount of gum removed we have the following terms:

Hard Silk-Yarn that has not undergone any boiling-off process.

Ecru Silk-Yarn boiled to remove about one-twentieth of the gum.

Souple Silk-Yarn boiled to remove about one-sixth of the gum.

Boiled-off Silk-Yarn which has had all the gum removed.

Spun Silk.-Silks that have been spun. There are two grades of spun silk, Schappe and Bourette. Schappe is made from silk waste from the fibrous portions of the cocoons, and the waste from this process is manufactured into a coarser yarn called bourette.

SILKETTE-
A term given to a proprietary cloth made from all cotton in satin weave, and finished with a soft glaze finish -dyed in all colours, made in 31 in. 90 yards, 17 x 17. 36's 1/ 42's.

SILVER GREYS (See ARMY GREYS).

SINGEING-
An operation by which projecting fibres are removed from the face of a cloth. In the cotton trade the cloth is passed over a rounded plate which is heated to a white heat.

SINGAPORE SUPERS (See SUPERS).

SIZING-
Cotton yarns are sized in order to lay down the projecting fibres and to enable the strain and friction of healds and reeds during weaving to be overcome. Size is also added to many cloths to give more weight, which means that size is added to take the place of cotton and produce a cheaper cloth. There are three general kinds of sizing, light or pure, medium, and heavy. Light Sizing is up to 10 per cent., and adds from 3 per cent. to 5 per cent. of weight. This gives a better handle to a cloth. All cloths for dyeing or bleaching are usually light or pure sized. Medium Sizing.-From 10 to 40 per cent. of size is added to make the cloth heavier. Drills, Jeans. China, and India shirtings, home trade domestics, and many other cloths are medium sized. Heavy Sizing-As much as 100 per cent. can be added to a cloth, such as may be seen in many cloths for West Africa, East Africa, China, etc.

SKIRTING-
A cotton cloth used for ladies' underwear. In the finer makes the plain weave is used; the warp is all colour in stripes, and coloured weft. An average cloth is
88 x 72, 32's/32's. The heavier makes are generally sateen weave, also with all colours, warp in stripes in qualities about 92 x 52, 34’s or 36's warp, 16's to 24's weft. This cloth is much used by market and field workers as an outer skirt.

SKYTEEN-
A cotton cloth in five end sateen weave made from about 36's to 40's light indigo blue warp and 32's to 36's tinted blue weft. Soft finished, and used as a shirting.

SLACK SELVEDGES-
A bad weaving fault which may cause much damage during finishing. Caused by the yarn being wound carelessly on the warp beam at the sides; by the selvedge yarn being too coarse or not so elastic as the other yarn, temples worn and not keeping the cloth out; and in many other ways.

SLASHER-TAPE SIZING MACHINE-
This machine is one of the most important used in cotton manufacturing, and its use is to size the warp yarn with a mixture that will lay all the fibres parallel, and add strength to the yarn to enable it to go through the strain and friction of weaving without damage. The required number of beams to make the complete warp (from 4 to 8) are placed in the beam creel at the back of the machine. All the threads from these beams are drawn together into one sheet of ends, passed through the size box, between squeezing rollers, taken round hot cylinders to dry, then past fans and round measuring rollers on to the weaver's beam at the front. The slasher to take beams up to 54 inches between the flanges is termed a 9/8's machine, that to take 60 inches a 6/4's machine, and that for beams up to 78 inches an 8/4's machine

SLAY, SLEY-
The frame in which the reed is fixed and which moves the reed forward to beat up the weft.

SLENDONGS OR PAHONES-
Cotton scarves or shawls made 25 to 30 inches wide, 68 to 75 inches long, with fancy headings and fringes at each end. Very similar to sarongs, but narrower.

SLIVER-
Cotton in a loose, untwisted strand or rope and ready for the process of slubbing or roving. The cotton is condensed into a sliver at the carding machine. The drawing frame makes this sliver more regular and uniform in thickness. The slubbing frame draws it out, puts more twist in, and winds it on to a bobbin or tube. The sliver is now called “slubbing”.

SLUBBING-
The operation of combining slivers together and drawing the strand out, adding twist, and winding on to bobbins. From this machine the slubbing passes to the roving frame where it is reduced to a finer thread, given more twist, made more regular and even in thickness, and wound on to a smaller tube. When required for super yarns the slubbing is passed through the intermediate frame which is a second slubbing process.

SLUBBINGS-
A defect in yarn consisting of thick, soft places made up of a mass of untwisted fibres.

SLUB YARN (See FLAKE YARN).

SMALLWARES-
The name given to tapes, narrow bindings, sash cords, braids, braces, ties, etc., woven on narrow looms.

SNARLS-
Small curly or kinked places in yarn, made by twisting a hard twist thread with one that has less twist, and, the hard twist thread curls up, forming a snarl. Lumpy places in yarns are often called "snarls" but this is a defect.

SOFT WASTE (See WASTE).

SOLEIL WEAVES-
Are of two classes, plain and ribbed. The plain is formed from satin weaves which are doubled or trebled, giving a very close intersection of threads and producing very strong fabrics. The ribbed is made by adding a plain weave to a warp rib weave, the warp being arranged so that the ribs are alternately right and left hand twist.

SOUPLE SILK-
Raw silk just sufficiently scoured to remove about 8 or 9 per cent. of its weight, the loss being caused by removing part of the outer gum layer.

SPANISH STRIPES-
A plain weave cotton cloth with a black stripe about one inch wide at each selvedge, woven 50 to 56 inches wide, about 64 reed, 24 to 32 picks, 36's hard spun twist, and 10's to 16's weft. The cloth is raised one side and piece-dyed.

SPIDER CLOTH (See NET LENO).

SPINNING-
The operation of drawing out the roving to the required counts or thickness at which any given number of hanks of 840 yards will weigh 1 lb. Also to put the required number of turns per inch in the yarn, and wind it upon a small bobbin, spool, or spindle.

SPIRAL YARN-
A fancy yarn made up of two threads twisted tightly together, and round this a soft spun thread is spirally twisted. These several threads may be of different colours or counts. Two threads of different counts twisted together will also give a spiral effect; the greater the difference in thickness the more prominent is the spiral.

SPLITS-
Are cloths woven with a selvedge in the centre, so that after finishing the cloth can be spit into two pieces. The inner edges are never perfect selvedges.

SPONGE CLOTHS-
Cotton dress goods fabrics woven with a sponge or honeycomb weave on 10 ends, which form hollows and ridges. Made in all widths and coarse yarns.

Another style made with the leno, weave is used for cleaning cloths, or may be made plain weave. About 10 or 12 ends and 10 to 14 picks per inch, 6's to 10's warp and weft.

SPONGE WEAVE-
A variety of honeycomb weave largely used for groundwork in counterpanes, toilet covers, shawls, etc. It is formed by arranging a satin base, usually on 10 ends and picks, giving a cellular formation.

SPOT COTTON-
Cotton in stock at Liverpool, and actually ready for delivery.

SPUN SILK-
A yarn spun from the filaments obtained from the waste or outside part of the cocoons and from damaged cocoons.

STOCKING-BACK CLOTHS-
A style of toilet cloth with twice as many face picks and ends as back ones. The face is plain weave, with pattern formed by stitching in diamond and other geometrical designs. Wadding picks at times are put in to throw up the pattern.

STRAIGHT-OVER DESIGNS-
A term used by designers to denote that the design repeats across or straight over. It is the simplest form of jacquard designing.

STRANFA-
A jute substitute manufactured from straw with a small proportion of jute, and can be produced very cheaply. It is made under a German patent.

SUPERS-
Plain weave cloth, all cotton, woven with red, blue, and grey stripes. Generally made 42 inches wide, 24 yards long, 60 x 60, 24's/30's. Also known as "Singapore Supers”.


SUPER WEFT-
A very level and good quality yarn specially spun for good class fabrics. Usually mule spun.

SURAH-
A French made silk cloth used for dress purposes, handkerchiefs, etc. Twill weave, and made on both hand and power looms, very light yarns of Jap silk are used.

SURAH FANTASIE-
A French-made silk cloth used for dress purposes, about 26 inches wide, with raw silk warp and spun silk weft. The cloth is printed in Foulard style.

SURAT COTTON-
An Indian grown variety of cotton, comprising Dharwar, Broach, Dhollera, and Hinganghat. They are coarse, dark colours, vary greatly in length of staple, and are seldom used alone in Lancashire. When mixed with other cotton, spinners can get yarns to about 28's or 30's.

SWANSDOWN-
A very heavy sateen cloth, all cotton, woven with a large number of picks, finished both white and cream and raised on the face, such as 72 x 150, 18's/24's.

SWISS MUSLIN-
The real muslin is woven in Switzerland on hand looms, and ornamented with small spots or sprigs of many colours. In Scotland and Bolton a fine lappet cloth is made to imitate this fabric, and usually 50 in. x 60 yards, split, 120 x 80, 80's/60's, both Egyptian, with a 3/40's lappet yarn. The figures are small.

SWISS PONGEE-
An imitation of the Japanese pongee made from mercerised cotton yarn, plain weave, about 80 x 76, 50's /46's, The imitation is not a good one.

SWIVELS-
An imitation embroidery, made on looms. Small spots or figures are produced upon a ground cloth, whose weave may be plain or figured. The swivel figures are in stripes, and separate shuttles are used for each figure, and passed from side to side of the figure space through specially formed sheds. The weft is firmly bound in at the edges of the figure, and the material used is just the amount necessary for the figure. There are no floats of figuring material. The cloths are expensive. Both hand and power looms are used, but not many of either.

TABBY-
A term used in many districts to describe plain weave. Tabby back means that the back of the cloth is plain weave on the back. Tabby Velvet-A velvet woven with the plain weave on the back.

TABLE FELT, OR SILENCE CLOTH-
A table cover used as a padding cloth under the white tablecloth. Usually 54 to 64 inches wide and 60 to 140 inches long. Made in damask designs and reversible. From 8's to 16's warp and weft.

TABS-
Small cuttings and ends of cloth under one yard in length. Over one yard they are called fents.

T CLOTHS-
Cotton cloths, plain weave, low quality yarns, heavily sized warp, made from 27 to 32 inches wide and always 24 yards long. The warp is soft spun in order to absorb size. Yarns 18's to 24's warp and weft. Shipped loom state.

TAFFETAS-
Originally made from all silk yarns in plain weave. Then botany weft was used. Bradford produces a wool taffeta much used for better class shirts. A large trade is done in cotton taffeta 36 to 40 inches wide, 100 x 100, 2/80's/2/20's, Sea Island cotton. This cloth is both bleached and dyed.

TAFFETA LINING-
An expensive lining fabric used almost solely for lining ladies' dresses. Made from 28 to 42 inches wide, 180 to 200 ends, 60 to 70 picks, very fine silk warp and much coarser weft. The weft at times is 2/60's cotton.

TAFFETALINE OR TAIVITINE-
A fabric made from the waste silk known as Schappe, principally used as a lining for dress skirts. Plain weave; qualities vary. An imitation silk taffeta.

TAKING-UP MOTIONS-
The object is to take up the cloth when woven and wind on to a roller, also to regulate the picks per inch put into the cloth. There are two classes, namely, "positive" and "negative". The negative or drag motion is most suitable for looms weaving heavy cloths, such as velvets, corduroys, etc. The positive motion is the one most used in Lancashire, and consists of a train of wheels (either 5 or 7) ; the first wheel, being a ratchet, and actuated by a pawl from the sley, transfers motion to a beam, whose roughened surface draws the cloth forward.

TAMMIES-
Plain weave cloths made about 26 inches wide from a cotton warp and wool weft in various reeds and picks. They are piece-dyed and heavily glazed. Used for underskirts.

TANGIBS, TANJIBS-
A light weight cloth, all cotton, made 30 to 50 inches wide, 38 yards long, with two fancy headings in the centre, about 48 ends and picks per inch, 40's/36's to 32's/40's. Pure sized.

TAPE-
All narrow plain weave fabrics can be termed tapes up to 10 or 12 inches wide.

TAPE SELVEDGE-
A strong selvedge woven on light cloths, such as voiles, crepes, georgettes, etc. They are made by cramming ends, as many as 50 to 60 being used in "1-inch tape". Two-fold yarn is used in many cloths. The widths vary from 1 inch to 34 inch.

TAPE SIZING (See SLASHER SIZING)-
This is another name for slasher sizing. This kind of sizing is termed "tape sizing" probably because the yarn is wound on beams in a wide tape form, and to distinguish this style from ball or hank sizing.

TAPESTRY CARPETS-
These are true pile fabrics, but the loops are not cut. They are similar to Brussels, but not so smart looking and much inferior in quality. They can be woven with tappets, and so are cheap to produce. The design is printed on the warp yarn before weaving. Heavy yarns are usual, from 2/10's to 2/16's or 3/20's to 3/60's. The bulk of these carpets are now made in squares, 9 feet, 12 feet, and larger.

TAPESTRY FABRICS-
Figured cloths in which pattern is developed by using coloured threads either in warp or welt; usually compound weaves using several warps or wefts, or both. A warp tapestry is one in which warp only is on the face and forms figure, and weft tapestry has weft only on the face. All are woven on jacquard looms. Super two or three fold yarns are used in the best makes. The Gobelins Tapestry Works in Paris is perhaps the largest factory for weaving real tapestries. The original tapestry was just a plain cloth used as a ground cloth, and figures were embroidered by hand with extra threads of all colours.

TAPPETS-
A shedding motion for plains, twills, sateens, and other simple fabrics. They are of two kinds, "positive" and “negative". The first both raises and depresses the heald shafts, while the other kind only operates one way, and other mechanism is required to work the opposite position.

TARLATAN-
A very fine open muslin cloth, plain weave, and originally made in India from the finest of yarns. It is very similar to pongees.

TARLTAN,TARLTON-
A plain cloth, open weave, all cotton, made from dyed yarns, and used for curtains and draping purposes. Fine yarns are used, and made from Egyptian cotton.

TARTANS, TARTAN PLAIDS, SCOTCH PLAIDS-
All cotton dress goods made to imitate the tartans used by the Scotch clans. They are made in vivid colours in checks, in many widths and qualities. A large trade is done in Colne and district in 27 in. to 30 in., about 50 to 70 ends and picks, 20's to 30's warp, and 16's to 24's weft. Yorkshire has a fair trade in tartans made from woollen yarns.

TENNIS CLOTH-
A cotton cloth of very good quality made from bleached or cream warp and weft and soft finished. In narrow widths 28 to 33 inches, 76 ends, 52 to 60 picks, 16's warp, 16's weft, 2 x 2 matting or 2 x 2 twill weaves. Stripes of 2/40's mercerised yarn introduced in many of them. Used for dress purposes. Also made in Bradford, 80 x 72, 18's/18's, 2 x 2 twill, all cotton or cotton warp and wool weft. The original fabric was an all-wool production.

TENT DUCKS-
Very heavy cotton cloths, used for tent cloths or sail making. Made in all widths, from two or three fold warp and weft yarns, plain weave or matting, such as 52 x 52 3/40's warp, 2/36's weft. Also made from linen yarns.

TERRY CLOTHS-
Terry is uncut pile. The term however is used to distinguish woven fabrics in which the principal ornament is a series of loops projecting from the main cloth. The loops are formed by an extra slack warp, and may be formed on one or both sides of the cloth, and all over the fabric or only at parts. The loop pile is produced by using wires or by what is known as the "terry motion".

TERRY VELVET-
The ordinary velvet, but with the pile weft left uncut.

TESTS-YARN-
Burning.-Cotton, flax, ramie, and other vegetable fibres burn readily without smoke or smell, and leave little ash. Wool gives when burning the odour of burning bones or hoofs, and a small knob is formed at the end of the thread. Pure silk burns as wool. Weighted silk burns easily, but does not curl up as pure silk does, and leaves an ash somewhat of the shape of the original thread. Artificial silks burn easily, similar to cotton. Chemical- Caustic potash turns artificial, silk yellow, but pure silk does not change colour. Artificial silk when wet becomes soft, and can easily be broken, showing no fibre, but pure silk always has fibre and strength. Strong hydrochloric acid dissolves silk, but beyond a swelling of the fibre wool is not altered. Caustic potash dissolves wool, but does not alter vegetable fibres. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves cotton, but not flax or wool; also dissolves silk.

TEXTILE-
Anything woven or suitable for weaving. This is a very comprehensive term, and includes all clothing, carpets, curtains, tapes, upholstery, mats, etc.

THIBET-
A plain weave all wool cloth, used largely for men's wear goods. Woven from soft yarns and unfinished.

THICKSET, THICKSET CORD-
The simplest and smallest corduroy cloth woven on 6 ends and 9 picks, ground weave, the 3-end twill, 2-pile picks to 1 ground. Short weft floats, which are firmly bound in. When cut a very thick pile is thrown up.

THREAD-
A twisted strand of cotton, wool, silk, etc., spun out to any length is termed a thread.

THREE-LEAF TWILL LININGS-
A term used principally among makers-up to indicate a dress lining woven with the three-end twill weave, and usually of good quality. Some cloths are woven stripes, other cloths are printed stripes, but all have a, glazed finish.

THROWN SILK-
Silk filaments as drawn from the cocoons are of great length, so they are "thrown" together to make a thread, several filaments being twisted into the sizes of thread required. The short lengths of silk, such as various kinds of waste, are spun into threads as with other short staple material, such as wool, cotton, etc.

THRUMS-
A wool trade term for piece ends. [SG note: Also used in the NE Lancs sheds to describe short lengths of waste thread used for repairs by weavers]

TICKS, TICKING, BED TICKS-
Fabrics principally used for covering beds. Made in widths up to 72 inches, about 72 x 60, 14's/18's, 14's/20's, etc., 2 x 1 or 3 x 1 twill weave, warp face, stiff finished. Generally in stripes, blue and white, red and white, etc. Also made with a linen warp and sized weft.

TIES, JACQUARD HARNESS-
The harness of a jacquard machine is tied up in four principal systems, as follows: Single Tie-In this there are as many hooks as there are ends in the warp, the warp threads being drawn through the mails of the harness in regular order from first to last. This system can only be used when the pattern extends from one side to the other of the cloth. Lay-over or Repeating Tie.-All designs which contain more than one repeat in the width of the fabric come in this system. It is the one most used in Lancashire. Centre or Turn-over Tie.-used when one-half of the pattern if turned over gives the complete design.
Complex Ties-Combinations of two or more of above.

TIE-UP-
The operation of tying the healds to the treadles, viz., the order of lifting the healds so as to produce a required pattern. Also termed "pegging plan" and “treading plan”.

TINTING-
A process by which warp yarn is coloured with a loose colour in order to distinguish it when with other yarns. The yarn tinted is generally twisted the reverse way to ordinary warp yarn.

TISSUE FIGURED CLOTH-
Very fine muslins used for curtains, etc., which have large jacquard designs produced by extra weft. The ground cloth is a plain open weave muslin made from a fine warp and weft. A thick figuring weft interweaves with the ground warp only where required for pattern, and the remainder floats loosely on the back. The floating yarn is cropped off. Two shuttles are necessary.

TOILET CLOTHS-
A toilet is a double fabric in which the face is stitched to the back cloth, the stitches producing the figure. A jacquard machine is used, and the back ends are operated by the machine, which lifts the back ends into the face all round the edges of the figure. A single shuttle can be used, but if wadding picks are required to throw up the figure then two shuttles must be used, because the wadding weft is usually of coarse counts. The plain face cloth is operated by healds and tappets. Two beams are used, and there are usually two, face ends to one back. Fast-back Toilets are those in which the figuring or stitching ends weave plain cloth with the weft when not forming figure; thus there are no floating threads on the back. Loose-back Toilets-In these the figuring ends float loosely from one stitching point to the next. These floats are liable to get broken after leaving the loom.

TOILINETTE-
A cotton and silk warp and wool weft waistcoating. Very expensive and elaborate designs frequently used. Probably France only produces this cloth at the present time.

TOLLANETTE-
A plain weave cloth which may have the warp all one colour or in stripes. The weft is bleached and coloured, and forms broad weft stripes. Woven on box looms. The picks are greatly in excess of the number of warp ends. Made in many widths and qualities.

TOWELS-
Several varieties of towels are manufactured, such as huckaback or huck, honeycomb, Turkish or terry, and crash. The huckaback is most used and is common in hotels, railway companies, steamship companies, and other large corporations, who have their names woven in. Can be woven on plain looms with dobbies or jacquards added. About 17 inches wide, 56 x 56, 2/20's/2/20's cotton or linen may be used. Many qualities are made. The 10 end weave is very largely used. (See Huckaback.)

Honeycomb Towels-Also made in a great variety of qualities. The best qualities are woven from bleached warp and weft to prevent damage after weaving. (See Honeycomb.)

Terry or Turkish Towels are fabrics made with the terry weave. Two beams are used, one for the loop pile, the other for ground warp, which is tightly weighted. Terry towels are named three, four, five, or more pick terrys. The "three pick" has that number of picks inserted between each row of loops, the "four pick" has four, and so on. The "three pick" is the common towel, and the greater the number of picks to a row of loops the better the quality of the cloth.

TRAM SILK-
A loosely twisted silk thread used for weft. The name is obtained from the French word "tram" which means "weft" It is a thrown silk and has much less twist than organzine, is softer, and more bulky, with more lustre.

TRICOTS OR ECOSIE-
A double weft rib effect either down or across the piece. Two colours of weft are used and all-wool yarns. (See Ecosie)

TREBLE CLOTHS-
Only met with in the woollen trade, and implies that three sets of warp and weft threads forming three separate cloths, one above the other, are united into one fabric. This method of weaving is used to give weight and yet allow a fine face fabric to be produced. The weave used is usually the 5-end satin, and there is a warp face and warp back.

TROUSERINGS, COTTON-
Coloured stripe or check cotton fabrics used in India, the Philippines, Egypt, and many South American markets for trousers. Generally made from all colour yarns in drab, black, brown, and blue, from 27 to 48 inches wide, plain or twill weaves. The cloths are sometimes raised on the back. A fair style is 64 x 48, 30/24's; another 90 x 84, 36/32's; a better cloth 80 x 74, 2/40's/16's.

TUBULAR FABRICS (See BAGS).

TULLE-
A very fine net fabric made from silk yarns, plain weave. First made in France.

TURKEY REDS-
Cotton cloths dyed with Turkey red dye and shipped to India. A great many qualities are made. Plain weave.

TURKISH CARPETS-
The genuine Turkish carpet is a hand loom product made on the native looms. These consist of two posts fixed to form a vertical frame with a roller at the top and another at the bottom, the warp being stretched between. The weaver sits in front with his design before him, and has a number of bobbins upon which are wound the different colours required. He selects a bobbin, forms a small loop round two warp threads, and cuts off the thread, leaving a small tuft on the warp. He completes a row of these tufts, opens a shed, and throws across a pick of strong ground weft, beats this down firmly, and then works on the next row of tufts, and so on. The ground cloth is a plain weave, with a row of tufts between each pick. After leaving the frame the tufts are sheared level. These carpets are very expensive. The best wool is used for the tuft yarn, so the fabric is very lasting.

TURNBACK CHECKS-
A cotton fabric made 28 to 36 inches wide in 20 yard lengths, and shipped to West Africa and South America; the quality is about 96 x 40, 22's matting warp and 20's weft. The centre of the cloth is a small blue and white check, and there is a broad border about 4 to 6 inches wide at each side of stripe only. The colour weft only weaves with the centre portion, and turns back at the edges of the border. Thus the centre has more picks than the borders.

TURN-OVER OR REVERSE DESIGNS-
A designer's term for those designs which reverse or turn over instead of repeating across the fabric. Either half of the design is exactly like the other if turned over; thus a 10-inch pattern looks like a 20 inch one.

TUSSAH SILK-
A wild silk, brownish in colour, produced by the silkworm Antherasea Mylitta. The most important of the wild silks, and imported from India and China. The Chinese variety is of a darker colour than the Indian.

TUSSORES-
A good quality dress fabric made from mercerised yarns in a plain weave. The fine warp used bends round a coarse weft, giving the cloth a cord effect. About 72 to 100 ends and 36 to 44 picks, 60's or 2/100's warp and 6's to 10's weft, or 2/14's 2/16's. The tussores for Egypt and other Near East markets are made from all colour warp yarns and grey weft. Brown, fawn, and light grounds, with darker coloured yarns forming stripes. About 72 x 38, 36's/10's or 24's/12's.

TWEED-
The original tweeds were hand-made woollen cloths made on the banks of the river Tweed from soft, rough yarns, the weave being mostly twill, but plain sometimes used and open and elastic in texture. Both checks and stripes were produced. The tweeds manufactured in Yorkshire are imitations of the genuine cloths.

TWILLS-
All fabrics having an appearance of diagonal lines can be termed twills. By using the twill weaves fabrics can be made heavier and more compact than if a plain weave was used. In nearly all twills the warp is harder twisted than the weft, and picks usually are in excess of the ends per inch to give a soft handle. Shipping twills are generally made 2 x 2 weave, 19 reed, 17 to 30 picks, 36 to 40's, warp, and 36's to 40's weft.

TWILL WEAVE-
The simplest twill weave is the 2 x 1, where one thread lifts once and is down twice, and this or any weave that produces a diagonal line across the cloth is called a twill. The 3 shaft or 2 x 1 twill is known as the "Jean", "Nankeen", or "Regatta" twill. The 4 shaft (2 x 2 weave) as the "Harvard", "Sheeting", "Shalloon" or "Cassimere" twill; the 4 shaft (3 x 1 weave) as the "Florentine", and the 5 shaft (1 x 4 weave) is known as the "Beatrice" twill.

TWILLS, CLASSIFICATION-
Twills are usually classified under the following general heads: Continuous or Regular-A regular diagonal line is, produced, and the lift is regular all across.
Zig-Zag- The diagonal line is reversed at fixed intervals, producing a series of waves. Rearranged.-A regular twill is taken as a basis, and the lifting is rearranged to a definite plan. Satin Twills give a very smooth face both warp and weft, and are produced by rearranging a regular twill. Corkscrews are also rearranged twills, but step two or more instead of one. Broken-A regular twill is broken in its direction at any desired interval. Figured-Simple spots or figures are combined with some simple twill. Combined.-Formed by taking two regular twills and arranging them as one by taking the threads alternately either end and end or pick and pick.

TWIST-
A term much used by traders for warp yarn; thus 30's twist means 30's warp yam, and usually spun "twist" way. The direction of the twist in yarn is important; so is the amount of twist or number of turns per inch. A distinct stripe is produced by using say, 20 ends "twist way spun" and 20 ends "weft way spun" yarn alternately.

TWIST COPS-
These are large cops upon which warp yarn is wound and which is rewound upon bobbins for the warping frame. The cops containing weft are termed "pin cops".

TWIST WAY SPUN-
Warp yarns are nearly always spun what is known as twist way, that is to the right. Hold a piece of thread horizontally and twist to the right or from you, and if it unravels it is twist way spun or T.W. Weft way spun is the reverse, that is twist to the left. (See weft way spun.)

TYRE FABRICS-
Very strong cotton fabrics in narrow widths, woven on special looms from good staple cotton. The yarns are from six to twelve folds. The warp is very closely set in the reed and picks much fewer per inch. Owing to the great care required to manufacture these fabrics and the large trade done in them, the tyre manufacturers have large mills equipped solely for their production.

UMBRELLA CLOTH-
A fine cloth made specially for covering umbrellas from super long staple cotton. Usually 36 to 44 inches wide, 75 to 90 yards long, fine reed and pick (from 96 to 110 reed and pick), and fine yarns (30 to 60's warp and weft), always plain weave. The cloth is also used for dress purposes. Many makes have a coloured cotton or worsted selvedge.

UNION CLOTHS-
Many fabrics are termed unions, such as alpacas, Italians, cashmeres, twills, and others in which the warp and weft are of different material, as, for example, cotton and wool.

UNION LINEN LAWNS-
Principally made in Ireland from a cotton warp and flax weft in many qualities, plain weave and fine yarns.

UNIONS-
Suiting cloths made from cotton and wool or worsted yarns. The amount of cotton varies considerably according to the price the shipper requires to sell at. They are imitations of the real all wool fabrics and are shown in plains, twills, stripes, and cheeks. The bulk of the trade is done in Yorkshire. The lowest qualities are shipped to China, India, South America, etc.

UNION YARNS-
Yarns made by combining two or more different materials. In the Lancashire and Yorkshire trade wool and cotton is the principal union yarn.

UPLANDS COTTON-
Cotton grown in Georgia and South Carolina, the higher lands of the cotton district. The cotton is soft and clean, but rather short in staple. Used principally for weft yarns up to 50's.

UTRECHT VELVET-
A lower grade of fabric than the ordinary velvet. The design is complete on 6 ends and 6 picks and can be woven on 4 shafts. Two picks separate one pile wire from the next, and only half the pile ends are raised over the pile wires. The pile threads are firmly bound in the fabric. Yarns usually all cotton about 2/24's warp and 2/20's weft, 60 to 70 ends, 60 to 70 picks, with 32 wires per inch.

VALENTIA-
A fancy elaborate waistcoating made from cotton and silk warp and worsted welt. The designs are developed in silk warp figures.

VELOUR-
The French word for velvet. A velour is made for curtains from coarse cotton yarns and piece dyed. The pile is very stiff and appears on both sides of the fabric. Cotton velours are made from heavier yarns than used for velvets and velveteens, and the weave develops a cord or rib. If this rib is warp way the cloth is termed "long velour" if weft way "gros velour". Generally piece dyed. The fabrics are intended to stand hard wear.

VELVERET-
The term by which the 6-shaft plain back velveteen is known.

VELVET-
The real velvet is made with a cotton back of twofold yarn and silk pile. A cotton velvet is now understood to be a warp pile fabric in which the pile is formed by looping over wires which on being drawn out cut the warp to form the pile. Twill back velvets are those with a twill ground weave, this weave allows more threads to be put in than if plain weave were used. When pile is made by weft the cloth is termed velveteen.

VELVET, EMBOSSED-
The usual velvet or velveteen fabric with a pattern embossed on the face, produced by heat and pressure. The embossing machine has engraved rollers heated by gas.

VELVETEEN-
A cotton fabric which as it leaves the loom resembles a satin with long weft floats. These floats are cut both by hand and machine and the cut threads rise to form a small tuft. The large number of tufts give a soft smooth face. A standard cloth is 72 reed 500 picks, 2/80's/50's super, and is usually sold grey at a fixed price per pound weight. One shuttle only is used for both pile and ground picks. The ground picks weave with warp to form the back of the fabric. The usual quality of velveteen has the pile weft bound in by one warp thread. Fast pile cloths have pile weft bound in by two or three ends, thus preventing the pile, when cut, being drawn out. Velveteen has the shortest pile and cotton plush the longest.


VELVETEEN PLUSH-
A cotton velveteen, but the weft has longer floats, which when cut give a longer pile. The pile is also firmly bound.

VENETIANS-
Cotton venetians used for linings and dress purposes are made all widths and qualities, well woven from super yarns and generally piece dyed. Many qualities have a coloured selvedge. From 9 to 11 shafts, 160 to 240 ends, and 96 to 110 picks per inch; 2/120's warp, 40's welt. Egyptian warp is most used.
Venetians are also made from all wool.

VENTILETTE-
A trade name given to a cellular cloth used for shirts and underwear, all cotton.

VESTINGS-
A term covering a large variety of fabrics used both for fancy vests and dress purposes. It includes pique, Bedford cords, welts, ribs, etc. The China market takes a large quantity of colour vestings for use as clothing in 26 to 28 inch widths, all cotton, stripes and checks, and in many qualities. A standard cloth is 29in. 120 yards, 80 x 74, 321/30,. 2/40's colour for bleaching up 10 ends of colour per inch. The cloths are bleached.

VIELEY CLOTH-
A crepe weave cotton cloth of good quality shipped to the Near East, made from dyed yarns (black weft) both single and twofold yarns used, such as 84 x 80 30's/20's, or 78 x 72 2/40/2/40.

Brocade effects are now produced on the cloth.

VICTORIA LAWN-
A fine cotton muslin, plain weave, soft yarns, about 60's to 80's warp and weft, weighing 9 to 12 yards per 1b.

VICUNA-
A dress goods fabric made from the wool of the Vicuna goat of Peru and other South American countries and also of Tibet. The bulk of the wool is used by the natives in the manufacture of shawls, rugs, etc. Bradford manufacturers make a plain cloth, which is dyed black. Has a very soft handle and used for suitings and ladies' wear.

VICUNA WOOL-
The wool from the goat-like camel of Peru, Tibet,, and other warm countries. It is the best wool fibre used in textiles, but is very scarce. Its colour is a reddish brown, it is very soft, long in fibre, and very lustrous.

VIGOGNE OR VICOGNE YARN-
This yarn is an imitation vicuna, but of a poor quality. It is a mixture of sheep's wool and cotton and used principally in France in the lower class of dress goods manufacture.

VIGOUREUX YARN-
This is a colour speciality yarn, and is made from printed sliver. The sliver is printed by a special machine, generally black and white, and is then drawn and twisted into a thread. The effect is striking. Usually worsted fibre and woven into cloth by Yorkshire manufacturers.

VISCOSE SILK- (see Lustrafil)
An artificial silk made from cellulose prepared from wood pulp dissolved in caustic soda. It can be exposed to the action of water without serious damage. This yarn is principally used for ornament in stripes or cheeks on a ground fabric.

VIYELLA-
A registered trade name for a Ceylon fabric used for underclothing. It is made from a mixture yarn of wool and cotton scribbled together.

VOILES-
Very light open plain weave dress fabrics made all plain for dyeing, printing, or bleaching, or in stripes with artificial silk or coloured mercerised effects. Made in all widths up to 60 inches. A large trade is done in 41 inch 60 ends, 60 picks, 2/100's/2/100's. The yarns are super quality and specially hard twisted. Woven one end in a dent. The fabrics must be well woven and free from faults. Both all cotton and all wool voiles are made.

VOILE YARN-
A specially hard twisted yarn used for making voile fabrics. Both single and twofold-single 1/50's, twofold 2/100's. Other counts are spun, but the above-named are spun generally when voile yarn is asked for.

WADDED DOUBLE CLOTHS-
Pure double cloths in which a third warp or weft is introduced to add weight and make a bulky fabric but still allow a fine face weave to be used. Warp wadding is most used because it is the most economical and when used is
usually of a coarser count than the other two warps. The wadding threads simply lie between the two fabrics and are not seen,

WADDING THREADS-
Yarn used to give weight or throw up a design without being seen. Generally of coarser counts than the ground cloth, and as it does not interweave with the cloth its face appearance is not affected.

WARP-
The series of threads placed lengthways in the loom over any desired width and passing from the back beam through the healds and reed. The term "end" signifies one thread of warp.


WARP FACED CLOTHS-
Cloths that have a greater number of warp threads showing on the face than weft threads.


WARP PILE FABRICS-
Fabrics in which the pile is formed by, the warp yarn, such as terry towels, warp plushes, velvet ribbons, some figured velvets, Brussels carpets, etc.

WARP RIBS-
A warp faced cloth in which the weft is thicker or grouped two or more together and lies straight so that the warp does all the bending. The warp is thus thrown to the face, producing a rib from selvedge to selvedge, as
seen in poplins.

WARP SATEEN-
A five shaft sateen woven with a much greater number of ends of warp than picks. Four-fifths of the warp is on the face and only one-fifth of the weft. These fabrics are much stronger lengthways than in the width. A large trade is done in cloths about 160 ends, 72 picks, 60's warp, 40's weft, or 60's/60's. All cotton, either dyed and schreinered or printed for linings and dress goods.

WARP WELT-
Piques and Bedford cords are warp welt. This term is not much in use.


WARPING-
The operation of winding yarn on to the beams for the loom. There are three general methods in use, viz. ball, beam, and section warping.

Ball warping is the oldest system and now seldom used except for certain kinds of coloured goods and for shipping in the ball. This system consists of large balls of yarn made by running the threads in the form of a rope. (See Ball Warping.)

Beam warping is the system commonly used, and here the threads are wound side by side on to a beam. Several of these beams are used and run together through the slasher to make one weaver's beam. (See Beam Warping.)

Section warping consists of making narrow sections of cheeses 4 to 6 inches wide, placing the required number of sections together and running on to the weaver's beam. Principally used in the coloured goods trade. The yarns used have been dyed and sized in the hank and wound on to warper's bobbins. (See Section Warping.)

[SG note: There is no mention of ‘chain’ warping. In this process, used in dyeing, the warp, in the form of a loose rope is woven by hand into a chain of loops and processed in this form. Very similar to ball warping and used for relatively small quantities.]


WARPS, DRESSED-
A term used to signify that the warp has been treated by cold size and hot air dried. This method is only used for very fine counts and super qualities and results in a round full yarn. The appearance of the yarn is much better than if slashed.


WARPS, HALF-DRESSED-
Special warps that are very lightly sized and intended for some subsequent process.

WARPS UNDRESSED-
Warps that do not require sizing to prepare them for weaving, such as those made from twofold yarns.

WASTE CLOTHS-
Low cotton fabrics made from a hard twisted warp and waste weft in plain or twill weave. Crepes and spots are also in use. The warp is about 28's to 34's and weft from 8's to l's or even coarser. Waste plains are simply plain weave. Waste twills or sheetings are the 2 x 2 weave. Waste crepes are usually on about 8 to 10 shafts, Waste spots also up to 10 shafts. Waste cotton blankets are made in wide widths, special shuttle and cop are required. The cop is known as a "Jumbo cop"-it is longer than any other and is simply pressed in the shuttle, which has no peg - the weft is drawn from the inside of the cop and the shuttle inside has serrated edges to keep the cop in its place. (See blankets.)

WASTE, HARD-
Consists of cop bottoms, weavers', winders’, warpers', and reelers' waste yarn. Generally used up for condenser yarns.

WASTE, SOFT-
This is comprised of all waste that has not been finally twisted, such as clearer waste, roller lap waste, spinning mill sweepings, sliver, and lap ends. [SG note: Soft waste was also the term used for unsized waste warp yarn cut off the taper’s beams at the end of a set. Very useful in the engine house for wiping down and soaking oil up. When an engineer talks of ‘a lump of waste’ he means soft waste as the sized waste is not absorbent.]

WASTE WEFT. (See CONDENSER, WEFT)-

WATERING, WATERED CLOTHS-
A finishing process by which moiré or watered effects are produced on fabrics. This effect is produced by doubling the piece so that the face sides are together, and then pressure is applied under heat; this pressure flattens the weft and those picks that come in a groove are untouched, while those that are together are pressed out. The flat picks by not reflecting light the same as those not flattened give the peculiar and irregular effect desired. The finer the cloth and the finer will be the markings. The cloth must be very well woven. This watered effect can also be obtained by means of suitably engraved rollers.

WAVE TWILLS-
A term used in a general way describing the weave and signifies that the cloth has a wave design. They are simple twills with the direction of the twill reversed at intervals and these give a wave or Zig-Zag effect.

WEFT-
The series of threads that pass from selvedge to selvedge of the fabric and known as picks. The weft is put into the fabric by means of the shuttle. Weft yarn is usually on smaller cops and softer spun than warp yarns. The bulk is mule spun. This yarn is seldom sized.

WEFT-FACED FABRICS-
Cloths that have more picks on the face than ends or threads of warp, such as ordinary sateens.

WEFT PILE-
Most velvets are weft pile cloths, and in all weft pile cloths the weft forms the pile.

WEFT RIBS-
Cloths in which the warp is coarser than weft, or warp is in groups of two or more, so that the weft does all the bending and forms ribs running down the piece. Weft usually preponderates on the face.

WEFT SATEEN-
The ordinary cotton sateen cloth and is generally termed "sateen”.

WEFT-WAY SPUN-
Weft yarns are usually spun in the opposite direction to warp yarns. If a thread untwists when turning the thread towards you it is weft-way spun. Weft is spun when required in the other direction and is then known as "T.W." weft, thus "30's weft T.W." is known as twist way spun.

WEIGHTING-
The process of adding weight to a cloth by the use of chemical or other substance. Sizing adds weight, and weight is also added in many finishing processes. [SG note: Very heavy sizing was not always fraudulent. Tapers have told me that the reason much heavy sizing was done on export cloths because the customer associated weight with quality and so the merchants asked for sizings which were often more than 100%. If sufficient size could not be added during taping some cloths were painted with size after weaving and then dried. This was generally done just before shipping because of the danger of mildew forming.]

WELTS-
True welts are the finest of cotton fabrics and woven practically without faults from the very best quality of yarn. Piques and welts are very similar, but a welt is a cloth with ribs across the piece, woven from two warps and two wefts, with the binding points of the back warp weaving with the face cloth on certain picks at exact distances. When fancy effects are introduced the term “pique" is generally used. A Bedford cord is sometimes called a welt, but the term is wrong, because the Bedford cord is only a very poor imitation, and the cords run down the piece. Welts are used for ladies' summer costumes, ties, vestings, shirts, and shirt facings, etc. A well-known welt is made 98 ends, 140 picks, 40's face, 34's back warp, 32's face, 16's wadding wefts, design on 12 ends. The best welts are made from Sea Islands cotton.

WHIPCORDS-
Worsted dress goods made in twill weaves from hard twisted warp. On 9 shafts usually and with the twill so raised that the effect is something like the lash of a whip. Cotton whipcords are made, but are inferior imitations.

WHIP-THREAD-
The crossing threads that are worked, by the doups in lenos or gauzes.

WIDOW'S LAWN-
A linen fabric made from very fine counts, plain weave, fine reed and pick. It is not much used to-day, as no particular cloth is meant.

WIDTH-
Cotton fabrics are bought and sold in Lancashire either "actual" or "nominal" width. The trade allows the use of these two terms, and understands that “actual" means full width, whereas "nominal” means less than full width, thus 36 inches actual will measure 36 inches on the table and no less, and 36 inches nominal may measure 35 1/2 inches on the table.

WIGANS-
Plain weave grey cotton cloths used both for home trade and shipping. Made in widths from 28 inches to 36 inches, and generally in long lengths about 64 to 72 ends x 64 to 68 picks, 20's to 28's warp and 20's to 24's weft. The warp is sized. The cloth is sold in the loom state.

WILTON CARPETS-
A similar carpet to a Brussels, but the pile is cut and usually made from much superior yarns. The pile is longer and more firmly bound in the fabric and is cut by means of the wires having knife edges, which, when drawn out cut the warp threads. Wilton carpets are in every respect superior to Brussels.

WINDING-
The operation of transferring yarn from hanks or cheeses on to bobbins. Also to wind warp threads from bobbins or cops upon which it has been spun on to the flanged bobbins ready for warping. [SG note: Also the transfer of weft from cheese or cop to shuttle pirn. In later years, in order to eliminate weft faults as perfectly as possible, the ring yarn was transferred from ring tube to cheese and then ‘rewound’ on to the shuttle pirn. Rewound weft was one of the strategies adopted to help the More Looms System work. This strategy did not start until ten years after this glossary was compiled.]

WINDOW HOLLAND-
A cotton cloth, plain weave, used for blinds. Made from 20's to 26's warp and weft. Heavily finished with a starch finish and sometimes glazed (see Holland). Piece dyed in drab, blue, green, etc.

WINSEYS-
A cotton flannelette made from super yarns in 35 to 40 inch widths, about 72x72, 30's to 36's warp, 20's to 24's weft, piece-dyed and nap finish. Better qualities are made with a proportion of wool. Woven plain weave. The original winsey had a cotton warp and a wool weft.

WITNEY BLANKETS-
All wool blankets produced in Witney. These fabrics are known as a superior make, and no other blanket can have the word "Witney" attached to it.

WOLSEY-
A registered trade name for an all wool fabric used for underclothing.

WOOL-
The soft curly coat of the sheep, goat, alpaca, llama camel, and other animals. Hair that is fine and wavy is termed wool. They all have a surface of overlapping scales, are easy to dye, but difficult to bleach. Sheep's wool is by far the most abundant, and is produced all over the world. There are many varieties of sheep. Wool fibres are long, curly, fine, have lustre, are very elastic, strong, and uniform.

WOOL AND COTTON FLANNEL-
A fabric used to imitate the genuine flannel and is made from mixture yarns composed of wool and cotton. The yarns are carded and the cloth well woven in both plain and twill weaves. The qualities are many, but in every case the percentage of wool should be stated.

WOOL EXTRACT-
A remanufactured or recovered wool obtained from old cloth, rags etc., in which cotton, flax, etc., had been used. The vegetable fibres are removed by carbonising.

WOOLLEN FABRICS-
Cloths manufactured from carded wool yarns.

WOOLLEN YARN COUNTS-
There are several systems of stating the counts of wool yarn as follows:

"Run” system, used in America. Standard length of 1,600 yards, and the number of lengths of 1,600 yards that weigh 1 lb. gives the counts thus, 1,600 yards 1 lb. = 1's run. 3,200 yards = 1 lb. = 2's run. 1/8 run = 200 yards to 1 lb., ¼ run = 400 yards to 1 lb., etc.

"Cut" system. The number of cuts of 300 yards that weigh 1 lb. = counts; thus, 6's cut has 1,800 yards to 1 lb. Used in Scotland.

“Yorkshire Skein” system has a length of 256 yards, and the number of these lengths that weigh 1 lb. = counts.

“West of England” system has a hank of 320 yards, and the number of these hanks in 1 lb. gives the counts.

WOOLLEN YARN-
Yarn, spun from wool in which there is no parallel position of the fibres. Carded but not combed, and is a cheaper yarn to produce than worsted. Used for tweeds, cheviots, flannels, etc.

WORSTED-
Wool Yarns that have been carded and combed until they are quite parallel. They are then twisted to make a regular smooth yarn, which is bright, lustrous, elastic, level, and very strong. Easy to dye. Used in the manufacture of suitings and dress fabrics.

WORSTED DIAGONAL-
An all wool fabric with a diagonal twill weave, made in many qualities and used for dress goods.

WORSTED EDGE SATEENS-
Cotton sateens made from super yarns with a few ends of worsted at each selvedge. The worsted is usually white, yellow, or red. Widths 30 to 40 inches.

WORSTED YARN COUNTS-
The number of hanks of 560 yards that weigh 1 lb. equals counts.

WRAP REELED HANKS-
The yarn from the bobbin is wound on a reel for 120 yards, and when this length has been reeled the guide is moved forward and another 120 yards reeled, and so on until the hank of 840 yards has been reeled.

ZANELLA-
A fabric made for umbrella covering, in twill weave and from super yarns. Silk is often used with cotton, according to the quality required.

ZEPHYR SILK BAREGE-
A dress goods fabric made from a worsted warp and silk weft, plain weave and printed. Or the warp is a worsted and silk doubled yarn with a fine hard spun weft.

ZEPHYRS-
Cotton fabrics, plain weave, woven from coloured and white, warp and bleached welt. If checks, coloured weft is also used. The coloured yarns are not bleaching colours, since the cloth is usually soft finished only. Used for dress goods and blouses. About 88 ends, 90 picks, 32's /32's. The zephyr shipped to Egypt and other markets is not so good a quality as the above cloth, and is generally lower in reed, pick, and yarns.

ZIBELINE-
The French term for a dress fabric with a hairy surface made from crossbred wool yarns in heavily coloured stripes. The piece is slightly raised.

Transcribed by SCG/26 September 2006
46,198 words.

[If I have offended anyone by transcribing this text I apologise. It was done pro bono as a contribution to knowledge of the textile industry as this is such a rare text. SCG]
Stanley Challenger Graham
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