REPORT ON BARLICK BY CARON NEWMAN

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REPORT ON BARLICK BY CARON NEWMAN

Post by Stanley » 20 Apr 2012, 13:27

REPORT ON BARNOLDSWICK BY CARON NEWMAN.



This report was commissioned by Lancashire County Council and will form part of a document to be prepared by the Lancashire County Archaeology Service (LCAS).


I was given sight of it by Caron and she is seeking permission for us to post it on Oneguy.

SCG/14 September 2004











Acknowledgements
Egerton Lea Consultancy wish to thank the staff of the Lancashire Record Office, particularly Sue Goodwin, for all their assistance during the course of this study. The help of staff at Barnoldswick Library is also gratefully acknowledged.
The documentary research and field study were undertaken by Caron Newman. This report was written by Caron Newman and all illustrations were prepared and processed by Caron Newman.
This report was commissioned by Lancashire County Council and will form part of a document to be prepared by the Lancashire County Archaeology Service (LCAS).
1. Introduction
1.1 Project Background
1.1.1This report is an archaeological and historic landscape assessment and characterisation of Barnoldswick and forms part of the Lancashire Extensive Urban Survey. The survey comprises an assessment of 31 towns within the post-1974 county of Lancashire, with a report produced for each town. These towns have been defined as having significant urban archaeological value. The Lancashire Extensive Urban Survey forms part of a reassessment of the urban archaeological resource throughout England.
1.1.2The Extensive Urban Survey Programme grew out of English Heritage’s Monuments Protection Programme. This still ongoing programme to re-evaluate the national archaeological resource led to a series of urban definitions being produced in 1988. The recognition that urban areas themselves are archaeological monuments led to a shift away from the identification of individual sites within towns to a more holistic appreciation of the entire historic urban fabric. The new approach was outlined in an English Heritage manual produced as a revised text in 1992.
1.1.3 The Lancashire project is being undertaken by Lancashire County Council and is funded by English Heritage. It is based on a survey commissioned by Lancashire County Council and carried out by the Lancaster University Archaeological Unit in 1997, which resulted in the compilation of the Lancashire Extensive Urban Archaeological Survey Assessment Report in January 1998. This report was used to develop a specification for the assessment of individual towns, the Lancashire Extensive Urban Survey Project Design, which was submitted by The Archaeology Service of the Environment Directorate of Lancashire County Council to English Heritage in January 2001.
1.2 Project aims
1.2.1The principal aim of the project is to review and evaluate the archaeological and historical resource for the 31 defined towns within the post-1974 county of Lancashire. The resource will be identified, assessed for significance and strategies proposed for its management.
1.2.2Key objectives include the quantification of previous archaeological work, the analysis of urban origins and development, the identification and assessment of the broad historic character of each town, and assessment of the potential for the preservation of significant archaeological deposits. In addition future research objectives will be identified. The assessment will then be used to assist in the review of the effectiveness of current planning policies for the future conservation of the archaeological resource, and to help define new archaeological and conservation guidance strategies for each town. The Extensive Urban Survey for Lancashire will form part of the developing Lancashire Historic Environment Record Centre (an expanded version of the Lancashire Sites and Monuments Record). Here it will be maintained as a nested dataset amongst the other conservation datasets used to assist in planning decision making within the county (LCC 2001).
1.3 Project methodology
1.3.1The project is based on the developing mechanisms for Extensive Urban Survey that have been applied elsewhere in England, these include the initial specimen assessment undertaken for Tetbury in Gloucestershire (Heighway 1992) and work carried out in Cheshire, Essex and Somerset. In addition the recent Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative has influenced the approach, as many of Lancashire’s towns owe their urban origins to industrialisation. The Lancashire survey includes an additional aspect, however, urban characterisation. This specifically targets the broad archaeological and built heritage resource of the nineteenth century industrial towns, a distinctive and significant feature of Lancashire’s historic landscape. This aspect reflects the growing emphasis placed on characterisation for managing change in both the rural and urban environments. It also reflects the importance of local character in the definition of a sense of place as emphasised in English Heritage’s policy statement Power of Place (2001).
1.3.2The data-gathering methodology involved historical research and a field visit. In general a cut-off date of 1914 was chosen, though some reference to later twentieth-century developments are necessary to provide a context and where particularly important structures of twentieth-century date are present. Most information was entered directly into the Lancashire Extensive Urban Survey database, which was developed, from already existing databases. This was then used for analysis and, through the use of the ArchView program, for the production of coloured base maps showing sites, designations, development phases, historic plan components and character areas.
1.3.3The field visits examined the modern topography of each settlement, assessed likely areas of survival and destruction of deposits and structures and created a basic photographic record in monochrome print and colour digital formats.
Description of study area
1.4.1Barnoldswick’s urban area was defined in relation to Lancashire’s Historic Landscape Characterisation Project, which outlined urban areas in accordance with their extent c 1990. The urban area of Barnoldswick is discrete, and the defined urban area generally follows the Historic Landscape Characterisation Project outline. Minor deviations from this outline have been made to incorporate post-1990 development, and to include the former cotton mill at Gillians, on the southern boundary of the defined urban area.
1.4.2Barnoldswick’s urban development was confined largely to the post medieval core until the middle of the nineteenth century. There was substantial development, particularly to the east of the town, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Most of the defined urban area, however, comprises twentieth century housing estates which ring the town, and redevelopment of nineteenth century industrial sites.
2. Location and topography
2.1 Geographical location
2.1.1 The town of Barnoldswick is situated near the eastern boundary of the post-1974 county of Lancashire, around the Ouzledale Beck, Butts Beck and Calf Hall Beck, which form part of the Ribble catchment. The settlement is centred on NGR SD 876 466. Until 1974, it lay within Yorkshire, close to the border with Lancashire. Following local government reorganisation, it became part of Lancashire. It lies on the north-eastern edge of the industrial towns of Lancashire, 15km from Clitheroe, 7km from Colne and 12km from Skipton.
2.2 Geology
2.2.1The solid geology of the area consists of Tournaisian and Viséan Limestone, which forms part of the Lower Carboniferous series. Barnoldswick lies close to the southern boundary of these Lower Carboniferous rocks, with an area of Upper Carboniferous Millstone Grit to the south (IGS 1979), where the land rises to White Moor.
2.2.2Barnoldswick lies within a broad valley, within which the relief is dominated by glacial activity, characterised by drumlins which form part of the Craven lowlands. In particular, glacial deposits are evident as boulder clay, though the higher ground to the south-west of Barnoldswick is generally drift free. Soils within the valley tend to be heavy loams, whilst the high ground is characterised by acid peat soils. There are also extensive deposits of alluvium along the river valleys (Rooke 1976, 5-8).
2.3 Landscape setting
2.3.1 Barnoldswick formed as a small nucleated settlement within the valley of the Calf Hall and Stock Becks. These streams drain the high ground to the west of Barnoldswick, but are diverted north by the watershed lying between Salterforth and Coates, to the east of the town. These streams lie within a broader valley lying between Barnoldswick and Earby, which is interrupted by a small hill, creating two secondary valleys (Rooke 1976, 4). Barnoldswick lies on the southern edge of the northern valley, and the landscape within the broad valley is gently undulating, characterised by glacial activity which created drumlins.
2.3.2 Barnoldswick lies on the far north-eastern end of the Lancashire Valleys countryside character area (Countryside Commission 1998, 102). The Lancashire valleys are characterised by their intensely urban nature, though the setting around Barnoldswick is more rural, because it is an outlying settlement. Barnoldswick also lies close to the edge of the Bowland Fringe and Pendle Hill character area, which is a diverse landscape of undulating pasture, with small- to medium-sized fields enclosed by hedgerows with mature hedgerow trees (Coutryside Commission 1998, 91-2).
3. Summary history
Place names
3.1.1The name Barnoldswick is derived from the Old English words Bernulfes wic, meaning the settlement or farm belonging to Beornwulf (Smith 1961, 34). Other names around Barnoldswick are generally derived from topographical features or agricultural uses. These include such names as Hen House, first documented 1794, Long Ing, documented in 1817, and Moor Close, documented in 1719 (Smith 1961, 35). The name Monkroyd marks the site of the former Abbey at Barnoldswick, and the second element is derived from the Old English word, rōd, meaning a clearing in a wood (Field 1972, 273).
3.2 Settlement origins
3.2.1 Up to the Conquest, Barnoldswick had formed part of the lands held by Gamel, which had passed to Berenger de Todeni by the time of the Domesday Book, but they soon became part of the lands granted to Roger of Poitou. From there it passed to the de Lacy family, becoming part of the Honor of Clitheroe (Warner 1934, 6). In 1147, Henry de Lacy granted Barnoldswick to Fountains Abbey. The Abbot sent twelve monks and ten laymen to Barnoldswick to establish a daughter abbey, called Mont St Mary. The settlement and lands of Barnoldswick appear to have been assigned to the new abbey for its upkeep (Whitaker 1878, 77). There appears to have been tension between the monks and the inhabitants of Barnoldswick, particularly after the Abbot ordered the existing church to be pulled down. The reasons for the desctruction of the church are unclear, and it has been posited that either it was removed to make way for the new Abbey, that the Abbot saw it as a rival to the new foundation, ot that the Abbot was intending to replace it with a larger, more suitable building (Atkinson 1917; Warner 1934, 10; Whitaker 1878, 77). The Abbey was short-lived, however, and in 1153 it was decided to translate it to Kirkstall, leaving Barnoldswick without a church. A new church was built around 1160, but some distance away from the settlement on the edge of a stream in a steep-sided valley. The church, which lies outside the defined urban area, was thus named St Mary le Gill (Warner 1934, 18). The new abbey at Kirkstall remained in possession of lands at Barnoldswick, and had a continued presence there with a grange, or monastic farm. In the thirteenth century, this was leased out, to Peter de Cestria (Warner 1934, 26).
3.2.2Barnoldswick’s subsequent medieval and early post medieval tenurial history is not well recorded. Part of the estate, Barnoldswick Coates, had been granted to Sawley Abbey (Atkinson 1917, 7), and part of the Fountains Abbey grant appears to have reverted back to the Honour of Clitheroe, and thus the manor belonged to the king along with the rest of the Honor. In the fourteenth century, there was a long-running dispute between the king and Kirkstall Abbey over the ownership of the manor, though by the early fifteenth century, the Abbey finally lost its claim, only retaining the advowson of the church. By the early sixteenth century, documents state that an old ordinance allowed the Abbey to hold no more than four tenements. The Abbey’s claims to the estate, however, meant that this had soon increased to twelve tenements, and the Abbey was claiming housebote and heybote in the king’s woods (Warner 1934, 33-4). Barnoldswick lay close to the boundaries of the Forest of Pendle, and it appears to have been treated by the Crown as part of the forest, even though it was not subject to forest laws. This was the cause of a boundary dispute between the Forest and Barnoldswick in the early fourteenth century (Shaw 1956, 369). In 1415, for example, it was described as a chase. The forest court also appears to have been sometimes held in Barnoldswick by the late medieval period, and the under-keeper of the King’s woods was also the town bailiff (Warner 1934, 28, 33-5). Vaccaries, or large-scale cattle farms, were commonly associated with the forests of east Lancashire, and this appears to have also been the case in west Yorkshire. Admergill, in the southern part of Barnoldswick township, for example, was recorded as a vaccary in 1395 (Warner 1934, 27), and personal and place names to the west of the town also suggest cattle farming. These include Cow Pasture farm, and Calf Hall, both recorded from the first half of the sixteenth century (Warner 1934, 42) and Richard Boothman and John Oxnard who were recordeed in 1698-9 (Kirk nd, 55).
3.2.3Little is known about the post medieval history of Barnoldswick. Manorial documents in the Duchy of Lancaster collection show that it remained a largely rural settlement, dominated by the large expanses of surrounding moorland. There are many references to common rights to the moor, such as turbary, and encroachments onto the waste from the sixteenth century (Warner 1934, 37-9). Following the Reformation, Barnoldswick Coates passed to the Drake family soon after 1600, and the family built and were based in Coates Hall from 1667 (Warner 1934, 49; Atkinson 1917, 7).
3.3 Urban origins
3.3.1The countryside around Barnoldswick was marginal agricultural land, and any increase in the population would soon have placed pressure on the limited farmland available. Thus, the inhabitants would have needed to find the means to supplement their income. As with many other places in east Lancashire, additional income was gained through woollen textile production. By the end of the eighteenth century, cotton spinning and weaving had been introduced (Savage nd, 22). Stone quarrying had also become an important industry, with large quarries worked around the settlement, but outside the defined urban area, at Gill Rock, Barnsey Roack and Rainhall Rock (Savage nd, 21). Barnoldswick thus developed as an industrial settlement, with growing numbers of schools, chapels and shops. It remained a village, however, until the latter part of the nineteenth century, when significant expansion in cotton manufacturing led to the development of large-scalew factories.
3.4 Growth and development
3.4.1Early population figures are difficult to ascertain, but from the church registers, it can be seen that the number of inhabitants in Barnoldswick gradually increased throughout the post medieval period. Between 1587 and 1825, there was an average of 21 baptisms a year, whilst there were 19 burials. In 1660, the hearth tax recorded 97 dwellings in Barnoldswick (Savage nd, 20). By 1743, there were 200 families in Barnoldswick, suggesting a population of up to 1,000 people (Warner 1934, 52, 58). It would appear that the population remained relatively stable up to the beginning of the nineteenth century, as there were 769 inhabitants in 1801. In the first 30 years of the nineteenth century, the population rose significantly, particularly between 1811 and 1821, when it increased by over 50%. By 1831, there were 1,612 inhabitants (Atkinson 1917, 108). The reason for this rise was the development of the handloom weaving of cotton textiles, put out by the owners of a number of spinning mills around the town. The population rose only by just under 500 in the middle of the century, but took another leap of 48% between 1861 and 1871. The major increases in population, however, came at the end of the nineteenth, and in the early decades of the twentieth century (Atkinson 1917, 108). This reflected the development of large-scale weaving sheds around the town.
3.4.2Although Barnoldswick had clearly developed as an urban settlement in the nineteenth century, a Local Board was not formed until 1890. There was no purpose-built hall for the Board, and they first met in the former Wellhouse Farm. It was only four years later, however, that the Local Board became an Barnoldswick Urban District Council. The former Mechanics’ Institute was bought and converted to a town hall in 1900 (Savage nd, 34).
4.Sources
Published works
4.1.1Barnoldswick attracted little interest from local topographers and historians during the nineteenth century. It is covered by Whitaker in his The History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven in the County of York (3rd edition 1878), and there is a brief coverage of the settlement’s history in Baines’s History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County of York (1822). Barnoldswick’s main interest to antiquarians was as the original site of the abbey, which was later transferred to a new site at Kirkstall. Both accounts concentrate on Barnoldswick’s medieval history, and there is little information, if any, on the physical development of the town, particularly in the post medieval period. RC Shaw’s The Royal Forest of Lancaster (1956) also includes some information on Barnoldswick, as it lay close to the boundaries of the Forest of Pendle, and the work covers the long-running dispute over boundaries.
4.1.2The main source for the history of Barnoldswick is a manuscript by WP Atkinson (1917) entitled ‘Old Barlick’. Like the earlier, antiquarian sources, it concentrates on the medieval tenurial history, the foundation of the abbey, and its removal to Kirkstall. It is likely that at least some of his material on Barnoldswick’s earlier history was based on another unpublished manuscript of 1864, entitled ‘Historical sketches on the antiquity of Barnoldswick and Gill Church’ (Anon 1854). Unlike earlier histories, however, Atkinson’s typescript continues to document later periods, though information on the earlier post medieval period is largely restricted to the development of the Baptist church. He provides a great deal of detail on the physical development of the settlement from the end of the eighteenth century, including a description of which areas developed at what date. He covers the rise of handloom weaving, and the development of spinning mills, associated houses, chapels, churches, shops and public buildings.
4.1.3Following Atkinson, only two significant histories of Barnoldswick have been written. The first was A History of Barnoldswick written by JH Warner in 1934. This was followed by A History of Barnoldswick by JL Savage, undated but apparently written in the 1960s. Both rely heavily on Atkinson’s manuscript for much of their information, but again include much useful information on the development of individual institutions and buildings, such as schools, churches and chapels. The only other available works on the history of Barnoldswick were two pictorial volumes, Barnoldswick. A Pictorial History (Davies 1983) and Barnoldswick – A Century of Change (Barnoldswick History Society 2000). The Baptist church in Barnoldswick has a very early foundation, and has been the subject of two histories, History of the Baptist church, Barnoldswick, 1500-1916 (Winnard 1916) and History of the Bethesda Baptist Church, Barnoldswick, Yorkshire (Lewis 1893).
4.1.4There were few nineteenth century trade directories which covered Barnoldswick. Amongst those which were available are the History, directory and Gazetteer of the County of York by Edward Baines (1822), Pigot’s National Commercial Northern Directory (1834), and from the late nineteenth century, Barrett’s General-Commercial Directory of Barnoldswick (1896).
4.1.5As well as the published and unpublished volumes available, one of the most useful sources can be found at www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk, the website set up by SC Graham in order to publish much of his own research on the history of the town and its industry. This includes transcripts of interviews with local inhabitants, which form part of the North West Sound Archive, based in Clitheroe Castle. As well as his own work, Graham has also published articles and information provided by others interested in the history of the town. This includes transcripts of some original documents as well as a copy of the map of Barnoldswick from 1580, and the website provides an invaluable source of information.
4.2 Manuscripts
4.2.1Although a large part of Barnoldswick belonged to Kirkstall Abbey, Barnoldswick Coateds was granted to Sawley Abbey, the chartulary for which has been published by the Yorkshire Archaeology Society (McNulty 1933). Extract from the Feet of Fines have been published by the Yorkshire Archaeological Society. Those relevant to Barnoldswick have been published on the website, www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk. Other documents, relating to the manor court of probate, have been published in an article by Kirk, a rebound copy of which is contained in Barnoldswick Library, which contains no details of the original place or date of publication. The library also contains accounts and minutes for the Urban District Council, the Bethesda Baptist church and the Liberal Club, along with a number of early twentieth century maps and plans of mills and other developments.
4.2.2Barnoldswick was part of Yorkshire until 1974, therefore documents for the town are spread across a number of record Offices in Lancashire, Yorkshire and elsewhere. The scope of this project only allowed time for the documents in the Lancashire Record Office in Preston (LRO) to be searched in detail. The catalogues for Yorkshire and other Record Offices were searched through the Access to Archives website (www.A2A.org.uk). There are no large collections of documents in the LRO, but one of the largest is the Barnoldswick Urban District Council records (LRO UDBK acc 6292), which include bye-laws and regulations, documents on waterworks, sewerage, gas supply, slaughter houses, new buildings, and building regulation plans amongst others. The other sizeable collection relates to Holy Trinity parish records (LRO PR 3440), including the grant and release fo tithes of 1807 (LRO PR 3440/3/1). Collections LRO DDX 1509, DDX 1262 and DDX 6 contain leases and deeds from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, whilst LRO DDX 1232 has accounts, correspondence and other documents for Bancroft Shed, dating from 1907. In addition, there are individual documents, mainly leases and deeds in a number of other collections.
4.2.3The main collection of Yorkshire documents are held in the Record Office in Leeds (SRO), principally in the Oakes Deeds collection (SRO OD). These include the eighteenth century court rolls of the manor of Barnoldswick, as well as numerous conveyances, leases and deeds for the mill and other land holdings from the early sixteenth century. There are also small collections of documents in the West Yorkshire Archive Service offices in Leeds (WYL) and Wakefield (WYW). These include an early eighteenth century indenture (WYL 500/602), and West Riding Quarter Session records (WYW Q20). Outside Yorkshire, both the Cumbria Record Office, Kendal, and the Nottinghamshire Archive Service contain limited documents relevant to Barnoldswick.
Cartographic evidence
4.3.1 Only one estate map covering the defined urban area of Barnoldswick was noted. This is a map of Whitemoor, dated to 1580, the original of which is kept in the National Archives, in the Duchy of Lancaster collection (PRO DL 31/106), with copies in both Colne and Barnoldswick Libraries. A black and white version, with a detailed interpretation and commentary is available on the www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk website. Tithes were released in 1807 (LRO PR 3440/3/1), but no tithe map is available. An enclosure map was drawn up, however, in 1829, the original of which is in Wakefield, but with copies in the LRO (LRO P82; P97/1). There are several plans, covering various parts of Barnoldswick and Salterforth, mostly outside the defined urban area. The most relevant section covers piecemeal encroachments along the roads leading south out of the town. The only other available maps are contained in Barnoldswick Library, which contains a number of plans of the twentieth century weaving mills. There is also a plan of part of the town, dated 1901, of proposed development on the Craven Bank estate. This map shows existing buildings as well as building plots which had been sold off for development.
4.3.2 There were no other plans available other than Ordnance Survey maps. The defined urban area for Barnoldswick is covered by four Ordnance Survey 1:10560 first edition maps, sheets 166, 167, 183 and 184, all of which date to 1853. The 1:2500 maps of the 1890s were unavailable in either the Lancashire Record Office or Barnoldswick Library, however, the 1:2500 map of 1909 was examined. Some information can be gleaned from earlier small-scale mapping, such as Thomas Jeffrey’s Map of Yorkshire (1771).
Archaeological evidence
4.2.4Following an initial examination of the nineteenth and early-twentieth century OS mapping, undertaken at the commencement of the LEUS there were 45 sites recorded for Barnoldswick in the Lancashire Sites and Monuments Record (LSMR). Of these 14, or 31%, were listed buildings, but there were no scheduled ancient m onuments or other designated sites. The majority were structures recorded from the Ordnance Survey map coverage or other nineteenth century documentary sources. Fifteen sites, or one third of the total, were known to have origins pre-dating 1800, a reflection of the relatively large number of surviving buildings which date to the seventeenth or eaighteenth centuries.
4.2.5No archaeological investigations are known to have been undertaken within the historic core of Barnoldswick, though there have been some building surveys. At the north end of the town, a building survey was carried out on a house and adjoining barn at Mill Close, Victory Park, in advance of repairs and restoration work for conversion to residential use (Neil 1999). The survey comprised a brief description of the building, annotated plan drawings and a photographic record of the exterior and interior.
4.2.6Barnoldswick was the subject of a rapid survey of its textile mills by the RCHME (1999). This followed a survey of the textile mills and related industrial buildings in the Borough of Pendle carried out in 1998-9. This survey provided a brief record based mainly on an external examination of the surviving sites. In Barnoldswick, a total of eleven mills were surveyed:
Bankcroft Shed
Bankfield Shed
Butts Mill
Calf Hall Shed
Coates New Mill
Crow Nest Shed
Fernbank Shed
Long Ing Shed
Moss Shed
Well House Mill
Westfield Shed
5. synthesis
5.1 Prehistoric
5.1.1 There are no known prehistoric sites within the urban area defined for Barnoldswick.
5.2 Romano-British
5.2.1 There is only one known Romano-British site within the urban area defined for Barnoldswick, a short length of the Ribchester to Elslack Roman road (LSMR 15757). The road, in the area of Barnoldswick has been plotted from aerial photographs.
5.3 Post-Roman and Early Medieval
5.3.1 Barnoldswick’s place name suggests an Anglo-Saxon origin, but possibly only as a farm rasther than a larger settlement. Barnoldswick was in mentioned in the Domesday Book, but any settlement would have been entirely rural in nature and may have consisted of dispersed farmsteads.
5.4 Medieval
5.4.1There is no surviving documentary evidence for the nature and development of the medieval settlement of Barnoldswick. If it was a nucleated settlement, then it is thought to have been located at the western end of the modern town, focused in the area of Walmsgate, Westgate and Townhead (Savage nd, 25), and the eastern boundary of the settlement probably extended no further than the junction with Barnoldswick Lane, later Manchester Road. The use of the name Townhead suggests that it may have formed the western limit of the settlement. There is very little evidence to suggest that Barnoldswick was established as a planned settlement, up to the early nineteenth century there was a continuous rear boundary line along the properties on the south side of the road. To the rear of this along Westgate, and to a certain extent along Walmsgate, there was another continuous boundary set further back, which may have marked the limit of former tofts, though this is separated from the building plots by an ancient lane (LRO PR 97/1).
5.4.2There was a church in Barnoldswick from at the least the twelfth century, as it was extant at the foundation of the Abbey in 1147. Although it is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, it was said to have been ‘ancient’ in 1147 (Warner 1934, 7). The location of this church is unknown, but it probably stood close to, or within, the settlement. It may have stood at the west end of the settlement, at Townhead, which was an open triangular-shaped area, defined by lanes, and which remained unenclosed lane until the nineteenth century, when it had been enclosed by encroachments (LRO PR 97/1). Another possible location may have been just to the west of Townhead, on the south side of Esp Lane, where it curves to form a semi-circular field, suggestive of the shape of an early churchyard. The church was pulled down by the Abbot, and when it was eventually replaced, the new church was built some distance to the east of Barnoldswick, on the banks of Gill Syke, well outside the defined urban area.
5.4.3The Abbey only remained in use for a few years, before the monks were transferred to a new site at Kirkstall. The site of the monastery is on the extreme western edge of the defined urban area, and is marked by the field name Monkroyd (OS 1853 1:10560). The buildings did not remain in use, and little is known about its appearance, though tiles and lead pipes which were unearthed in the nineteenth century close to Butts Beck suggest that substantial buildings had been erected (Warner 1934, 9). St Mary’s Well also lay close to the site, opposite the junction of a path with Calf Hall Lane, and south of Higher Calf Hall. The only remains of the Abbey were minor earthworks in the field to the north of Calf Hall Mill, including a boundary bank, thought to be medieval in date, and the faint remains of a few buildings (Platt 1969, 189). The Abbey maintained a presence in Barnoldswick through a grange, although this was leased out to tenants by 1298 (Warner 1934, 26). The location of theis grange is unknown, though it may have been based in the formaer monastic buildings.
5.4.4Barnoldswick had a water corn mill, situated to the north of the town, on Butts Beck. It formed part of the manor of Barnoldswick Coates, and as such was part of the grant to Sawley Abbey in the twelfth century (Atkinson 1917, 7; McNulty 1933, 127). The first surviving documentary evidence for the mill dates to between 1148 and 1154, when Henry de Lacy granted the monks permission to strengthen their dam, make a fishpond and construct a mill (McNulty 1933, 127). There are no other references to the corn mill in the medieval period, but by the early seventeenth century, it had passed, along with the manor and the manorial rights, to Richard Banester of Barnoldswick (SRO OD/1091, 1610; OD/1097/2, 1625).
5.4.5Between the settlement and the mill lay the village green. This area had been completely enclosed by the early nineteenth century, and it was developed by the mid-nineteenth century (Savage nd, 24), so its exact bounds are uncertain. From the pattern of surrounding roads, however, it is possible to reconstruct it approximate shape and area. The eastern boundary probably followed the line of Dam Head Lane, later called Newtown, the southern boundary by a tiny lane called Back Lane, and now called Philip Street. The western edge was probably defined by Butts Beck, and the northern edge is probably marked by the line of St James’ Square and St James’ Road. This area was still open and known as the Village Green up to 1816 (Savage nd, 24). The western end, next to Butts Beck and north of the Main Street, was called the Butts. This is said to be so-named as it was the area set aside for archery practice (Warner 1934, 90).
5.5 Post-medieval
5.5.1By the early post-medieval period, Barnoldswick was clearly a significant nucleated settlement, with Salterforth forming a smaller nucleation to the south. It was significant enough to have a school by 1743, maintained by the parish, and which had around 20 to 30 children (Warner 1934, 58). The fields to the north and east of Barnoldswick, that is around Barnoldswick Coates, appear to have been old enclosures, held in severalty, whilst there had been a number of enclosures and improvements on the edge of the common, leading up to White Moor (PRO DL 31/106, 1580). As well as enclosing new fields from the common land, a number of houses and barns were built (Warner 1934, 38-9). It is clear that Barnoldswick would have remained a largely agriculture community into the post medieval period, though the community seems to have developed a significant industry in woollen textile production from an early date. A clothier, John Varley, is recorded in 1621 (LRO DDX 1825/1). He would have collected cloth from individual householders, who would have worked looms in their own homes and farmhouses throughout the township. Some of these are recorded in the manorial court of probate in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries (Kirk nd, 65-7). Quarrying and coal mining are also recorded from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, such as Sir John Tempest who was granted a lease to dig for ‘seacoles’ in 1560 (Warner 1934, 42).
5.5.2The nucleus of the settlement remained focused around Walmsgate and Westgate, without some encroachments onto the village green. The north side of Westgate and Walmsgate may also have developed in this period, where many of the houses had cellar dwellings (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 42). There had been some encrochaments around and on the village green, such as 15 and 17 King Street, originally one house built in 1714, and Monk’s House, a former farmhouse now in multiple occupation, which was rebuilt in 1735 (Atkinson 1917, 7). Its name suggests a connection with Kirkstall Abbey, and perhaps was associated with the grange. There are a number of surviving seventeenth and eighteenth century buildings in Barnoldswick, most of which lie in the town centre, but others which developed as outlying farms and later absorbed into the town. Amongst the outlying farmhouses were Dam Head (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 8), Hen House and West House farms, and the Fosters Arms to the north of the town, as well as Newfield Edge and Hey Farmhouse to the south (www.imagesofengland.org.uk). Land belonging to the mill, known as Mill Close, was also developed. In 1654, there was a ‘lathe barn’ existing in the close (SRO OD/579), and in 1748 the house with its adjoining barn was owned by the church (Warner 1934, 60). At the mill itself, there was a kiln, for corn-drying, malting or both, by 1666 (SRO OD/608).
5.5.3Coates Hall was the most significant of these outlying farms. It was supposedly built in 1667 by the Drake family (Atkinson 1917, 7), who had been granted the manor soon after 1600 (Warner 1934, 49), however, Coteshall is documented in a conveyance of 1654 SRO OD/579). Close to Coates Hall was the settlement of Barnoldswick Coates, a farm which was probably founded following its grant to Sawley Abbey (see section 5.4.4). By 1629, there was clearly more than a single farm, as a deed of 1629 records “all its houses, lands, rents, etc” (SRO OD/1103), and another document of 1629 describes it as a capital messuage “with all its houses, buildings, lands rights, etc” (SRO OD/1106). This may have included Coate Flatt, a farm which was in existence by 1659 (SRO OD/582), and in 1790 (LRO DDX 1261/2/2). In the mid-nineteenth century (OS 1853 1:10560), Barnoldswick Coates appears to be a fold, though there are also buildings on Skipton Road, and it may have developed as a dispersed settlement.
5.5.4One of the most significant developments in Barnoldswick in the post medieval period was the growth of a Baptist movement. Previous histories of the Baptist movement in Barnoldswick have emphasised the early origins of dissenters in England around 1500, as Anabaptists (Winnard 1916). This has been taken by later writers to imply that there were Baptists in the settlement from this date, although there is no evidence for this. In fact, the first documentary record for Baptists in Barnoldswick is in 1661, by which date a messuage, barn, croft and garden were held in trust by three of the members (Winnard 1916, 16). Meetings were first held in the barn, which was registered for worship following the Toleration Act in 1689. This continued as the meeting place until 1695, when the cottage next to the barn was converted to a meeting house (Winnard 1916, 37-8). A new and larger chapel was built next to the cottage and barn in 1797 (www.imagesofengland.org.uk).
5.6 Industrial and modern
5.6.1Barnoldswick in the early-nineteenth century. From the late eighteenth century, handloom weaving was the main industry in Barnoldswick, carried out mostly by individuals in their homes. Very few of these early handloom weavers’ cottages survive, except at 30-6 Walmsgate, where the looms were on the third storey (LSMR 16946). There were some factories, the largest of which was the dandy shop run by J Slater in Barnoldswick Lane, who had 14 looms (Warner 1934, 86). There was another, known as Little Hudson’s, in the Butts (Atkinson 1917, 32-3). The early nineteenth century saw considerable new building to accommodate the handloom weavers, much of which was in the form of back-to-back cottages. Although not widespread, some were built with cellar dwellings, such as houses on the north side of Walmsgate, the upper storeys to which were reached by external stone steps (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 42). In 1816, for example, the village green was sold off for development, and the Commercial Inn and 20 back-to-back houses were built on it (Warner 1934, 84). From the proceeds, the town guardians culverted Butts Beck at the east end of Walmsgate in 1825. This was known as Town Bridge and it replaced a footbridge (Atkinson 1917, 18; Savage nd, 24). Other back-to-backs were constructed at the southern boundary on the defined urban area at Gillians and Bancroft, presumably associated with the Gillians spinning mill, and there was a small handloom weavers’ colony of back-to-back houses at Barnoldswick Lane (Savage nd, 25). The looms were mostly on the upper floors (Warner 1934, 86). Some cottages were built by building societies, such as the terrace at Town Head, built by the Barnoldswick Friendly Society in 1829 (www.imagesofengland.org.uk), the three-storey houses built by the Oddfellows’ Club next to the Wesleyan Chapel in 1828 (Atkinson 1917, 19), Crow Foot Row at Barnoldswick Lane in 1828, and Hudson’s Buildings at the top of Walmsgate in 1838 (Savage nd, 25).
5.6.2Barnoldswick in the mid nineteenth century. New housing was being built around the outskirts of the existing settlement, and there began to be a move away from the back-to-back cottages of the early nineteenth century. Some of these mid-nineteenth century dwellings were substantial through houses, such as those built by the Foresters on Station Road in 1851, which had large front gardens as well as rear yards (Warner 1934, 87). Within the existing settlement, the last area of the village green was developed in 1851, with the construction of Orchard Street, Garden Street and Market Street, creating the area known as Newtown. As well as houses, Newtown also included a Primitive Methodist Chapel and shops. The Wellhouse Street area was a discrete area of mill workers’ houses, probably built for workers at Well House Mill which opened in 1854, and which were complete by 1860 (Savage nd, 28). Despite the erection of through houses for mill workers, back-to-back properties were still being built, and both Newtown and the Wellhouse Street development were a mixture of through dwellings and back-to-back houses (OS 1909 1:2500). Other back-to-backs were constructed to the north of St James’ Church, on Alice Street and Robert Street.
5.6.3Barnoldswick in the later nineteenth century. Barnoldswick’s main period of expansion was in the late nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century, following on from the growth of the cotton weaving industry in the town. This expansion lay mostly to the east and south-east of the existing settlement and took the form of grid-iron development. Housing provision grew rapidly with the growth of the large weaving sheds, particularly from the first years of the twentieth century. This period marked Barnoldswick’s transition from an industrial village to a town, and was accompanied by the development of other urban features, such as growing numbers of schools, churches, chapels, shops and public buildings.
5.6.4Textile industry. There were a number of early water-powered spinning mills in Barnoldswick, the first of which was probably Mitchell’s Mill, to the south of Walmsgate on Butt’s Beck, which was in existence by 1800. It was a spinning mill, which by 1812 also appears to have been used for dyeing. In 1827 it was extended and a steam engine installed, but it was replaced by the adjacent Clough Mill in 1845 (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk), which was a weaving mill. Other early mills were at Paddock Lathe, a tiny mill on Calf Hall Beck which was running by 1808 but went out of use in 1813, Coates Old Mill probably built in 1803, and Gillian’s Mill which was a twist mill in 1790 and had expanded to a spinning factory five years later (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). Coates Old Mill probably went over to water-powered weaving around 1840, with steam power subsequently introduced. No new mills were built until 1845-6, when Clough Mill and Butts Mill were erected. Butts Mill was a steam-powered spinning and weaving mill built for William Bracwell who also built Well House Mill in 1854 (RCHME 1999). Both mills undertook spinning and weaving, and by the late nineteenth century had switched over to room and power working (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 84). The only other mid-nineteenth century mill was Coates New Mill of 1864, a steam-powered weaving mill (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). The last nineteenth century mill was Long Ing Shed, built in 1887. It was the first of the large-scale cotton weaving enterprises in the town, which usually worked on the room and power principle. These included Moss Shed of 1903, Bankfield Shed of 1905, westfield Mill of 1911, Bancroft Mill of 1914, Crow Nest Shed and Fernbank Shed both of 1915, and Bancroft Shed of 1920 (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk).
5.6.5Other industry. Barnoldswick was a largely single-industry town. There had been substantial stone quarrying from at least the late eighteenth century. The main quarries; Gill Rock, Barnsey Rock and Rainhall Rock, continued working up until the middle of the nineteenth century (Savage nd, 21). Quarrying was boosted by the opening of the Leeds to Liverpool Canal in 1796, and Rainhall Quarry was connected to the canal by a branch canal known as Little Cut (OS 1853, 1:10560). The large-scale quarries lay outside the defined urban area, within it there was only a small quarry at Coates, which was still operating up to around 1850 (OS 1853 1:10560). The only other industry of note was the sawmill at Ouzledale Mill, which may have been eighteenth century in origin (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). It was converted to an iron foundry in the early twentieth century, but was gutted by fire in the 1970s.
5.6.6Commercial development. There appears tro have been little commercial development prior to the mid-nineteenth century, as Barnoldswick remained a largely rural industrial settlement in character. Its services were those that would be expected from such as settlement, including several public bakehouses (Warner 1934, 87), butchers, blacksmiths, a flour dealer and grocers, as well as craftsmen such as stone masons, wheelrights, blacksmiths and cabinet makers (Baines 1822, 455). In 1834, these were joined by a tea and coffee dealer and a glass and earthenware dealer, and the overall number of commercial premises had risen slightly to reflect a growing population (Pigot 1834, 717), but there was not the range of shops to be expected in larger towns. This situation began to change from 1851 onwards, with the development of the Newtown area (Savage nd, 30). Many of the houses built in this area were later converted to shops (Atkinson 1917, 63), and others were built along Church Street and Manchester Road from the 1870s. The old Well House Farm was redeveloped in 1895 and six three-storey shops were built (Savage nd, 34) The first Co-operative store was set up in a cottage in Newtown in 1854 (Savage nd, 32), and the first purpose-built store was built on Manchester Road in 1871 (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 91). This was followed by a Co-operative store on Albert Rd in 1907, which was an emporium and contained the head office. It closed in the late 1980s, and the site is now called the Town Square (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 85-6). Banks were also introduced in the late nineteenth century, including the Craven Bank which was opened in 1876 (Atkinson 1917, 88) and the London City and Midland Bank which moved to larger premises in Station Road in 1892 (Savage nd, 34).
5.6.7Pubs, inns and hotels. There is little information on the origins of Barnoldswick’s first inns. One of the oldest buildings is the Fosters Arms, to the north of the town, which has a datestone of 1699. The date when it bacame an inn, however, is unknown, although it is marked as an inn in 1853 (OS 1853 1:10560). All the other inns are undocumented before the nineteenth century. The Commercial Inn was probably built in 1816 or soon after, following the selling of the village green for development (Savage nd, 24), although it was not listed in 1822. The only inns listed at that date were the Cross Keys and the Scotchman’s Arms (Baines 1822, 455). This latter inn was also sometimes known as the Scotch Laddie (Savage nd, 30), though its name had changed to The Engine by 1834 (Pigot 1834, 717). Following the opening of the railway in 1871, its name changed again, to the Railway (Savage nd, 30). The other two public houses, the Greyhound and the Seven Stars, were also open by 1834 (Pigot 1834, 717).
5.6.8Non-conformist chapels. The Baptists continued to worship in their Walmsgate chapel until the mid-nineteenth century, when it became too small. Bethesda Chapel was built nearby in 1852 (Lewis 1893, 38), but this closed in 1868 when the minister went bankrupt. This split the congregation, some of whom returned to the old chapel, and some went to the Old Coates Mill (Winnard 1916, 69). The Coates Mill group later returned to Bethesda Chapel, but moved to a new chapel established in a barn known as New Laithe on Rainhall Road (Winnard 1916, 71). A chapel with Sunday School was built on North Road in 1879 (Savage nd, 10). The Methodists were the only other significant group on non-Anglicans in Barnoldswick in the nineteenth century. The first Wesleyan Methodist chapel was built in 1806 on Jebb Hill, which was extended in 1858-9 including a Sunday School (Atkinson 1917, 16, 73). This was considered too small by the 1870s, and a new chapel was built on Rainhall Road in 1877 (Savage nd, 34). This was demolished in the late 1960s and replaced by St Andrew’s Methodist Church (Davies 1983, 16). The Primitive Methodists first established themselves in 1855 in the club room of the Engine Inn. This was replaced by a purpose-built chapel in Market Street, in the newly developed Newtown, in 1859. This was considered inadequate by 1878, and was replaced by a new chapel on Station Road which opened in 1880 (Savage nd, 12). The last Methodist chapel to be built was for the Independent Methodists, whose church was known as the New Ship, on Walmsgate opposite the original Baptist chapel in, 1892 (Savage nd, 13).
5.6.9Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. The church of St Mary le Gill continued to be the main parish church until the 1830. Then by 1836, the Reverend Richard Milner campaigned and raised money for a National School opposite the Engine Inn. This was St James’, which acted both as a school and a chapel of ease from 1838. A new school was soon built elsewhere, however (see section 5.6.11), and the building was altered to serve solely as a church. The north door was walled up, a porch was built around the south door, and a tower and gallery was added. The church was consecrated in 1842 (Savage nd, 13-14). There had been no official Parsonage in Barnoldswick, and in Vicar had used the farm at Mill Close (Warner 1934, 60), but in 1846 a Parsonage was built out of the town on Skipton Road (Warner 1934, 79), in a location convenient for both Anglican churches. The Roman Catholics first worshipped in a room hired in the National School in the Butts, in1884, then in 1897 they moved to the former Wesleyan Methodist Chapel on Jepp Hill. In 1906, an iron church was erected off Gisburn Road, which was not replaced by a more permanent structure until 1929 (Savage nd, 17-18).
5.6.10 Schools. Although the parish had been running a school since at least 1743 (see section 5.5.1), by the 1830s, the Reverend Richard Milner saw it as necessary to build a National School. This was duly opened in 1838 at the top of what became Church Street, opposite the Engine Inn, and doubled as a chapel of ease known as St James’ (Savage nd, 13). It was decided that St James’ should act solely as a church, and a new National School was built at the bottom of the Butts, next to Butts Beck, in 1841 (Savage nd, 14). This small school comprised single rooms on two storeys with a large porch (Warner 1934, 78). It was replaced by the Unity School for Barnoldswick and Salterforth, also known as the Brick School, on Fountain Street in 1875, and this was succeeded by a school on York Street in 1883 (Savage nd, 34, 79). The Baptists and Methodists also built schools with their chapels, both Sunday and day schools. The Baptists built a school with six classrooms by their North Street chapel in 1879 (Winnard 1916, 75), and the Bethesda Chapel had a Sunday School in 1890 (Savage nd, 10). The Independent Methodists also had a Sunday School, which was not built until 1911 (Savage nd, 13), and the Roman Catholics built a day school next to their iron church in 1914 (Savage nd, 18). The Wesleyan Methodists built the largest school, on Rainhall Road in 1878 (Savage nd, 12). It did not long remain Wesleyan Methodist, however, as the Anglican Unity School became boys only and the girls and infants were transferred to Rainhall Road (Savage nd, 34).
5.6.11 Public buildings. Barnoldswick did not acquire any public buildings until the later part of the nineteenth century, when it was clearly becoming urbanised. There had been a number of friendly societies in the early nineteenth century, which were established as building societies (Atkinson 1917, 19). The first public-interest organisation to be established was the Mechanics’ Institute, which first met in the National School at the Butts from 1852 (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). The Institute transferred to the former Wesleyan Methodist Chapel on Jepp Hill in 1879, where it had lecture, reading and smoking rooms. In 1900 it became the Town Hall (Davies 1983, 12). The Butts school later became a working men’s club (Savage nd, 14). A Liberal Club was established in the former Unity School on Fountain Street in 1885 (Savage nd, 34), and a Conservative Club was built on Station Road in the late nineteenth century (Barrett 1896). The first Police Station was set up in a cottage opposite the Seven Stars public house, where the cellar was used as a cell, and a purpose-built station was not constructed until the twentieth century. Other public institutions were not established until the very end of the nineteenth century, or the early years of the twentieth century. The isolation hospital, for example, was built in 1898 on the far northern edge of the town on Gisburn Road, and the Recreation Ground at Letcliffe opened in 1902 for public walks and pleasure (Savage nd, 37). Victory Park was created in the twentieth century, following the sale of the St Mary le Gill’s glebe land to the Urban District Council in 1920 (Warner 1934, 64).
5.6.12 Public utilities Throughout the nineteenth century, the main sources of drinking water were from the Dub at Damhead, which was replaced by a stone trough in 1850, along with the the pump house at Town Head (Savage nd, 28), at or near Wellhouse Farm. Barnoldswick did acquire a gas supply in the nineteenth century. It was first provided in 1854 to light Wellhouse Mill by the mill owner, Bracewell. He was constructing a new gas works in 1885 on a new site when, went he went bankrupt (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). The gas works were taken over by the Local Board in 1890. The Barnoldswick Gas and Light Company was formed and the town was subsequently lit by gas (LRO UDBK/7/1; Barrett 1896). Although the Local Board had considered water and sewerage supplies in the 1870s and 1880s (LRO UDBK/Box 17), it was not until 1891 and the Urban District Council had been formed that arrangements was made for a regulations and a waterworks (UDBK/10) A cemetery had been opened at Gill, outside the defined urban area, by 1896.
6 statement of historic urban character
6.1 Plan form
6.1.1Barnoldswick appears to have developed as a nucleated settlement in the medieval period, but there is no surviving evidence for deliberate planning in its layout. Throughout the post medieval period and up to the middle of the nineteenth century, development was piecemeal and unplanned, spreading along the main streets of Westgate and Walmsgate and around the village green. There appears to have been little development land available and some of this expansion took place as roadside encroachments, particularly around road junctions (LRO PR 97/1). Where areas of land became available for development up to the mid-nineteenth century, it was limited in size. This resulted in small areas of planned development, such as Newtown, Barnoldswick Lane and Croft to the north of the town centre, but which were characterised by closely built cottages and included numerous back-to-back dwellings.
6.1.2 The key change in Barnoldswick’s development came in the late nineteenth century, as more land was freed up for development. The large-scale building of terraced houses was along streets laid out in a grid-iron pattern. House building went hand-in-hand with the construction of large weaving sheds, which began in the late nineteenth century, but which accelerated in the early years of the twentieth century leading up to the First World War. The major areas of development were on the east and south-east side of the town centre.
6.2 Surviving plan components
6.2.1Walmsgate (Area 1). An area of post medieval settlement which probably contains part of the medieval core, but developed with the growth of handloom weaving in the town. It contains the oldest surviving buildings in the town centre, that is the two seventeenth century former Baptist chapels and Monk’s House, which was rebuilt in 1735.
6.2.2Corn mill (Area 2). A small area of post-medieval settlement which lay outside the main settlement sentre, and focused upon the site of the medieval corn mill. The main building is the large, three-storey corn mill, which was rebuilt but still operating as a corn mill in the late nineteenth century. In 1887, it was steam-operated with five pairs of grinding stones (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). On its south side are two cottages, dated to around 1800, which appear to be associated with a small loomshop to the rear.
6.2.3 Gillians (Area 3). A fold which probably developed in the late eighteenth century as a water-powered spinning mill, with some associated handloom weavers’ cottages (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk). The cottages are still back-to-back, and the former mill has been converted to residential use.
6.2.4 Barnoldswick Lane (Area 4). A small handloom weavers’ colony to the south of the main settlement, and which appears to have developed in the early nineteenth century. This was probably the site of J Slater’s dandy shop which had 14 looms (Warner 1934, 86). Some of the back-to-back cottages have now been demolished on the east side of the lane, but Crow Nest Row, built in 1828 for handloom weavers (Savage nd, 25), still stands, as does the Greyhound public house, which was extant in 1834 (Pigot 1834, 717).
6.2.5 Town centre (Area 5). An area of nineteenth century terraced houses, built piecemeal up to the middle of the nineteenth century, on both the former village green and The Butts. It includes a large number of surviving back-to-back dwellings and houses for handloom weavers, most with upper storey loomshops. Some of the cottages were built by local building clubs, such as Hudson’s Buildings at the top of The Butts built in 1830 (Savage nd, 25), and Forester’s Buildings built in 1850 (Savage nd, 27). Many of the houses built in Newtown and along Church Street were converted or rebuilt as shops (Atkinson 1917, 63). This was the commercial heart of the settlement, and has the Commercial Inn (now The Barlick), the Cross Keys and the Seven Stars. It also includes the Town Hall, originally a Wesleyan Methodist chapel and the former National School at the bottom of The Butts.
6.2.6 Town Head (Area 6). Town Head was probably the medieval centre of Barnoldswick, and is known as Wapping. It is now characterised by early nineteenth century houses, many built for handloom weavers. It includes a terrace at Town Head, built in 1829 (www.imagesofengland.org.uk), by Barnoldswick Friendly Society. There are a few terraces of later nineteenth century houses on Colne Lane.
6.2.7 Wellhouse Street (Area 7). A small area of nineteenth century terraced houses to the east of the town, off Rainhall Road. They were built around the middle of the nineteenth century, probably for millworkers at Well House Mill, which opened in 1854. The development included a significant proportion of back-to-back cottages, many of which still survive on Hill Street.
6.2.8 Crow Nest (Area 8). A small area of nineteenth century terraced houses, probably built for workers at the adjacent Coates Mill. They were built in the later part of the century, with some constructed in the early twentieth century. There is also a row of three houses which were built before 1849 (OS 1853, 1:10560).
6.2.9Skipton Road and Gisburn Road (Areas 9 and 10). Two small areas of nineteenth century terraced houses, built at the end of the century or in the early twentieth century. Both areas lie to the north of the town, and were laid out in the planned manner seen in grid-iron development, but only covering a small area.
6.2.10Grid-iron development (Areas 11 and 12). The areas of grid-iron development lie to the east and south east of the older settlement centre. They developed from the late nineteenth century, on both side of the railway line. The areas of terraced houses continued to develop in the twentieth century, and their late date means that many were built with small front gardens and rear wings.
6.2.11Wapping mills (Area 13). Textile mills on the west side of the town centre, it includes Butts Mill, first opened in 1846 as a steam-powered mill, and Calf Hall Mill, opened in 1889. Both developed as room and power weaving mills in the late nineteenth century. The original Butts Mill has been demolished, but a number of late nineteenth and early twentieth century sheds survive. Calf Hall Shed is built of coursed and random stone rubble, with multi-storey office, warehouse and yarn preparation block, single-storey weaving shed with engine house, boiler house and chimney (RCHME 1999). Between the two was Paddock Lathe, which was a very small water-powered spinning mill which operated in the early nineteenth century, but which is now a hall (www.oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk).
6.2.12Bankfield Shed and Coates Mill (Area 14). Two cotton weaving mills. The earliest was Coates New Mill, built in 1864 on the east bank of the canal (www.onegurfrombarlick.co.uk). The random stone rubble buildings have been significantly fire damaged and much rebuilt (RCHME 1999). In 1905, Bankfield Shed was opened and run on a room and power basis. It is built of stone rubble, with a two-storey warehouse, yarn preparation block and single-storey weaving shed. It was later taken over as a Rolls Royce factory, and is now occupied by the Rolls Royce Aerospace Group (Barnoldswick History Society 2000, 56; RCHME 1999).
6.2.13Long Ing and Moss Sheds (Areas 15). Two weaving mills on the eastern edge of the town. Long Ing Shed, opened in 1887 on the north side of Long Ing Lane, and was the first of the new generation of large-scale weaving mills built in Barnoldswick. Moss Shed, a very large room and power weaving mill, was opened in 1903 (www.onegurfrombarlick.co.uk).
6.2.14Westfield Mill (Area 16). A steam-powered room and power cotton-weaving mill built in 1911, from a datestone on the building. It is of coursed and random stone rubble and comprises an office, warehouse and yarn preparation block, an engine house, boiler house and chimney (RCHME 1999).
6.2.15Fernbank Shed (Area 17). A steam-powered cotton-weaving mill built in 1915 for room and power working by the Fernbank Shed Company. The mill is built of random stone rubble and had a two-storey warehouse and yarn preparation block, now partly rebuilt after a fire (RCHME 1999).
6.2.16Crow Nest Shed (Area 18). A steam-powered cotton-weaving mill built in 1915 by the Crownest Shed Company Ltd, and worked on the room and power system. The mill is built of stone rubble and though the multi-storey warehouse and yarn preparation block has been almost entirely demolished and replaced, the large weaving shed with engine and boiler houses and chimney, survive (RCHME 1999).
6.2.17Letcliffe Park (Area 19). An area laid out as formal gardens, with a bandstand and war memorial. It was created in 1902 for public walks and pleasure (Savage nd, 37).
6.2.18Victory Park (Area 20). Victory Park was created in 1920, following the sale of glebe land to Barnoldswick Urban District Council (Warner 1934, 64). It is now laid out mainly as a series of sports fields for football and cricket, as well as tennis courts and bowling green, as well as a playing field.
6.3 Building materials
6.3.1Barnoldswick lies in an area of abundant supplies of building stone, and it remained a largely stone-built town into the twentieth century. The surviving buildings of seventeenth or eighteenth century date are all built with random or coursed stone rubble, with stone window and door surrounds (www.imagesofengland.org.uk). This tradition continued with the handloom weavers’ cottages of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Many of these, including the back-to-back cottages had stone flagged floors, with either stone steps of wooden ladders accessing the upper storeys which were open to the roof. Unlike many east Lancashire textile towns, there was only a limited use of watershot stone building technique used in the construction of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century buildings. Some can be seen along Walmsgate, but many of the surviving early buildings were constructed using either random rubble or coursed rubble.
6.3.2The mills were also stone built, including the very large twentieth century weaving sheds. In many of the east Lancashire towns, factory brick was used for the construction of many of the very late mills, as mass production and railway transport had reduced the costs considerably. In Barnoldswick, however, the abundance of local stone meant that mills continued to be built in stone up to the First World War. There was a brick works near the quarry on Salterforth Lane which was used for the inner skin of buildings and shed building (www.onegurfrombarlick.co.uk).
6.3.3Roofing material was generally stone flags, which still survive on many of the seventeenth and eighteenth century buildings. The use of stone flags remained common into the nineteenth century, and can be seen on many buildings dating to the middle part of that century. Indeed, even the twentieth century extensions to the former National School on The Butts, now a club, have been roofed in the same stone flags used on the original structure. This continued popularity of stone slates well into the nineteenth century, and also the continued use of stone for almost all buildings, may be related to the late date at which the railway came to Barnoldswick. Until 1871, Barnoldswick was wholly reliant on the local road network, and the Leeds Liverpool Canal to the east of the town. Welsh slate began to imported following the opening of the railway in 1871 (www.onegurfrombarlick.co.uk).
6.4 Housing types
6.4.1Barnoldswick is dominated by two main building types, apart from the small number of surviving earlier seventeenth and eighteenth century cottages and farmhouses. Along Walmsgate, Westgate, around Newtown and north of St James’ Church are earlier nineteenth century cottages, mainly two-up, two-down, but also back-to-backs, without front gardens or rear yards. These were generally built piecemeal or in short rows, many for handloom weavers. Although there were some cellar loomshops, and cellar dwellings, in the town, many loomshops were on the upper storeys. The houses built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are all larger two-up, two-down terraced houses, with rear single- or two-wings containing sculleries and outdoor privies. Many have small palisade front gardens, though most only have extremely small rear yards which were accessed by back lanes. Barnoldswick remained a relatively small settlement in comparison to most of the east Lancashire textile towns, and does not seem to have developed the areas of middle-class development seen elsewhere. Certainly, there is no ribbon development of larger terraced houses, or semi-detached villas that were commonly seen along the main roads leading out of many towns by the early twentieth century (OS 1909 1:2500). It is apparent that the middle-class inhabitants lived amongst the mill workers, probably in the slightly larger terraced houses. This may be because many of the mills were operated on the room and power basis, and thus there were not the large mill owners seen elsewhere.
6.5 Communication networks
6.5.1 Barnoldswick lay in a fairly isolated position on the border between the counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and off the main routes leading between major medieval administrative centres such as Clitheroe and Skipton. Its roads, therefore, were all minor routes and none of them were turnpiked in the eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries. It did lie close to the route of the Leeds to Liverpool Canal, however, which opened to the east of Barnoldswick in 1796. the main impact of the canal on Barnoldswick was to stimulate the stone quarrying industry, and a short branch of canal, known as the Little Cut, was created to access the Rainhall Rock quarry (Savage nd, 20-1). It must also have served to transport cloth and yarn from the spinning factories and handloom weavers of Barnoldswick, as there was a warehouse on the canal next to Coates Bridge (OS 1893 1:10560). Even as late as 1909, there were still operating wharves on the canal close to both Bankfield Shed and Long Ing Shed (OS 1909 1:2500).
6.5.2 Barnoldswick had to remain dependent on the canal and local road system for longer than many other textile towns. A railway between Keighley and Skipton had opened in 1847, and in 1849 it was extended to Colne. There was no branch line to Barnoldswick, however, until 1871, running from Earby and terminating at Barnoldswick. This was sold to the Midland Railway, who owned the main line, in 1891 (Warner 1934, 85). This branch line comprised a single track, with a station on Well House Road, part of which was renamed Station Road. There was also a goods shed opposite the station. The line was closed in the twentieth century and the line was taken up.
6.6 Spaces, vistas and panoramas
6.6.1 The small size of the town meant that it was always closely linked to its rural surroundings, until twentieth century development. The need for open, social places within the settlement was not great. In consequence no formal open spaces developed for recreational use within the town. The village green would have acted as accessible open space in the settlement until its development in 1851. Even so, it had already been enclosed and was in use as an orchard in the early nineteenth century. It may still have had some public function, however, as the stone stocks were kept there until Newtown was built (Warner 1934, 84). Indeed, the piecemeal nature of development up to the middle of the nineteenth century gives an enclosed, intimate feel to the town. The first officially designated open space was the recreation ground at Letcliffe opened in 1902 (Savage nd, 37), followed by Victory Park in 1920 (Warner 1934, 64). The main open space within the modern town is Town Square, which was created in the 1970s, following the demolition of the Co-operative store on Albert Road. This provides a natural focus for the town centre, and the surrounding small shops and nineteenth century shop fronts lend a tradition feel to the square.
6.6.2 There is no indication that any of Barnoldswick’s streets were laid out to provide vistas of distant points. The later grid-iron development meant that streets were straight and laid out in a regular pattern, but this was done to assist development rather than with any idea of urban design.
7. designations
7.1 Listed buildings
7.1.1 There are no listed buildings graded I within the defined urban area for Barnoldswick.
7.1.2 There is one building listed grade II* within the defined urban area for Barnoldswick. This is Coates Hall, on the east side of the town. It was built in the early eighteenth century for the Drake family, who became lords of the manor of Barnoldswick Coates around 1600. This three-storey house is rubble-built with a stone slate roof, and is now divided into four dwellings. The house has an elaborate central doorway with pediment.
7.1.3 There are 13 grade II listed structures within the defined urban area for Barnoldswick. The majority of listed structures are farmhouses, plus a terrace of club houses dated 1829 and built by the Barnoldswick Friendly Society, as well as the Fosters Arms, a public house which dates to the late seventeenth century. The only other listed structures are a seventeenth century milestone, a barn adjoining Mill Close Farmhouse and two chapels. The chapels are the only ones surviving from before 1900. They are the Independent Chapel od 1892, and the two former Baptist chapels of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
7.2 Scheduled monuments
7.2.1 There are no scheduled ancient monuments listed for the defined urban area for Barnoldswick.
7.3 Conservation areas and registered parks
7.3.1There is one conservation area within the defined urban area for Barnoldswick. This covers Barnoldswick’s entire town centre, from Town Head in the west to the dismantled railway line in the east. In incorporates the whole of the area of medieval and post medieval settlement, including the areas developed up to the 1850s. It includes, therefore, Town Head, Westgate, Walmsgate, Newtown, and Croft to the north. It is characterised by late eighteenth and early nineteenth century rows of cottages, including some back-to-back houses and others built for handloom weavers. The area also extends douth along Manchester Road to include the small handloom weavers’ colony at Barnoldswick Lane.
7.3.2There are no registered parks or gardens within the defined urban area for Barnoldswick.
8. nature and significance of the archaeological and historical resource
8.1 Survival
8.2.1 Areas of below ground potential within the historic core are constrained by late eighteenth century and nineteenth century development, some of which is cellared. The area of medieval and post medieval settlement was small and restricted to the western side of the modern town. The relative lack of redevelopment in this area from the nineteenth century indicates a high potential for surviving buried medieval and post medieval remains. The lack of archaeological investigation in Barnoldswick to date, however, makes it impossible to characterise the nature of any potential below ground remains. On the south side of Westgate, the buildings have been demolished, and the land has not been redeveloped to date. This area is likely to have been the centre of medieval settlement, and should have a high potential for surviving below-ground remains.
8.2.2Barnoldswick is remarkable amongst east Lancashire textile towns for the extent to which the post medieval and nineteenth century buildings survive. There is a high potential for surviving above-ground remains, from the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. There is also the potential for earlier features surviving behind eighteenth and nineteenth century facades. Many of the known pre-nineteenth century structures are listed, though others, such as the Monk’s House and the corn mill are unprotected. There is a relatively high percentage of surviving late eighteenth and early nineteenth century handloom weavers’ cottages and back-to-back dwellings, none of which are listed, and these are vulnerable to inappropriate change and modernisation, though for the most part, they are well-maintained, and many have been modified in an apparently sympathetic manner.
8.2.3 Some of Barnoldswick’s early textile mills, such as Mitchell’s Mill and Coates Old Mill have been demolished. Others such as Paddock Lathe and Gillian’s Mill have been adapted to other uses. The former corn mill, for example, was being modernised at the time of writing, though apparently in a sympathetic manner. Barnoldswick’s textile industry is characterised by the number of very late weaving sheds, and many of these still survive. A large number of houses around Newtown were adapted as shops in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the survival of many of these small shops and shop fronts is remarkable, lending a distinctive character to the town centre. This entire area forms part of the extensive conservation area, but none of the individual shop buildings are protected by listing. The former Wesleyan Methodist Chapel of 1806, and later Town Hall is also unprotected, and was undergoing extensive modernisation and conversion to six apartments at the time of this report. No archaeological recording had been undertaken prior to the work taking place.
Bibliography
Abbreviations
BL Barnoldswick Library
LRO Lancashire Record Office
SRO Sheffield Record Office
WYL West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds
WYW West Yorkshire Archive Service, Wakefield
OS Ordnance Survey
PRO Public Record Office, Kew
RCHME Royal Commission for Historic Monuments England
Unpublished manuscripts
LRO DDX 1262/2/2
Copy lease between Henry Dean of Heightside, Barnoldswick and Peter Hartley of Coat Flatt, Barnoldswick, 1790
LRO DDX 1825/1
Bargain and sale between John Varley of Barnoldswick, clothier, and Christopher Ellis of Damhead, Barnoldswick, of the close called Stanhopes
LRO PR 3440/3/1
Grant and release of tithes, 1807
LRO UDBK/7/1
File on Gas and Ligth Company 1891-3
LRO UDBK/10
Bye-laws and regulations, including waterworks, 1891
LRO UDBK/Box 17
Estimates and reports on water supply and sewerage, 1878-82
LRO UDBK acc 8966
Building regulation plans, c 1880-1948 and indexes
SRO OD/579
conveyance John Halsted of the Haighe (co. Yorks.), yeoman, to William Edmonson of Coteshall in the township of Barnoldswick, (co. Yorks.) yeoman. Parcel of ground divided into several closes, called Mylne close and a lathe or barn standing thereon and another parcel likewise divided, called Wilson Crofts or Willson field, all within the manor or reputed Manor of Barnoldswick; for £55, at a rent of 11s. 6d. to the Lord of the fee and 10s to Halsted. Warranty against Halsted, Margaret his wife and Elizabeth his mother, widow of George Halsted, deceased, 1654
SRO OD/582
Abraham Halsteed of London, merchant, and John Halsteed of Rowley (Lancashire), gentleman, to Edward Parker of Broosholme (co. Yorks.), William Edmonson of Coat flat in Barnoldswick, yeoman, and Robert Ellis of Barnoldswick, yeoman (being persons nominated as Trustees on behalf of themselves and all other the plaintiffs in a cause in Chancery). The Royalty and seignory of the Manor of Barnoldswick and all Courts Leet and Baron, profits, fines, amerciaments, reliefs, goods and chattels of felons, deodands, fishing, fowling, hawking and hunting, moors, commons etc., belonging to the Manor; in pursuance of an order in Chancery. Reciting another indenture made in pursuance of an order in the said cause, by which Halsteed conveyed to Edmondson, Higgin and Watson, divers messuages and lands, part of the manor of Barnoldswick, 1659
SRO OD/608
Nathaniel Halsted of Haige in Sawley (Yorks.), gentleman, to William Drake of Barnoldswick Coates, esquire. All that water corn mill in Barnoldswick, in the tenure of Henry Marsden, with all buildings, gardens, waters, weirs, fishponds, suit of mill, soke and mulct etc., belonging to the mill, a kilne near the mill and a close called the milne croft and an annual rent of ten shillings; to be held of the Crown by accustomed service. Warranty against Halsted and heirs of his brother, John Halsted, late of Bradford, deceased, 1666
SRO OD/1103
Richard Banister of Barnoldswicke Cotes, gentleman, and John, his son, to Thomas Drake of Thornton in Craven, clerk, and William, his son. All that capital messuage called Barnoldswicke alias Barnoldswick Cotes with all its houses, lands, rents, etc. (a lease to John Waite of the Lathstead on 27th June, 1601, a lease Thomas Hudson of a close called Nethercrofte with a house and 2 garths on 31st October, 1617, a lease to John Allen of a messuage cottage, barn and garth on 1st April, 1625, and a lease to Thomas Waite of aclose called Stonyflatt Butty on 5th May 1612 all excepted). For £1700, 1629
SRO OD/1106
Richard Banister of Barnoldswick Cotes, gentleman, and John, his son, to Thomas Drake of Thorneton in Craven, clerk and William, his son. All that capital messuage called Barnoldswick alias Barnoldswick Cotes with all its houses, buildings, lands, rights etc. For a certain sum of money, 1629
maps
Brough, J, 1901
Plan of the estate situate at Barnoldswick in the County of York (laid out for building purposes) in the property of Craven Bank Ltd
IGS 1979
Geological Map of the British Islands, 5th ed
Jeffery, T, 1771
Map of Yorkshire, reprinted 1775 by R Sayer and J Bennett
LRO P97/1
Barnoldswick inclosure award plan, 1829
PRO DL 31/106
Plan of White Moor, Barnoldswick, 1580
OS 1853
1:10,560 sheet 166, Southampton
OS 1853
1:10,560 sheet 167, Southampton
OS 1853
1:10,560 sheet 183, Southampton
OS 1853
1:10,560 sheet 184, Southampton
OS 1909
1:2,500 sheet 183.4, Southampton
Websites
www.A2A.org.uk Access to archive
www.imagesofengland.org.uk Listed buildings
www,oneguyfrombarlick.co.uk Stanley Graham website
Theses, typescripts and unpublished reports
Atkinson, WP, 1917
Old Barlick, unpubl manuscript, BL
Neil, NRJ, 1999
Mill Close, Victory Park, Barnoldswick, Lancashire: RCHME level 2 archaeological building survey, unpubl client report
RCHME 1999
Lancashire textile mills, Barnoldswick, Borough of Pendle, survey report
Rooke, B, 1976
The origin of the alluvium deposits around Barnoldswick, dissertation for Certificate of Education, Chorley College of Education
Published sources
Baines E 1822
History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster, 1, London
Barnoldswick History Society 2000
Barnoldswick – A Century of Change, Barnoldswick
Barrett, P, 1896
General-Commercial Directory of Burnley, Nelson, Colne, Padiham, Barrowford, Brierfield, Cliviger, Trawden, Barnoldswick and adjacent villages and townships, Preston
Countryside Commission 1998
Countryside Character Volume 2: North West, Cheltenham
Davies, C, 1983
Barnoldswick. A Pictorial Heritage, Burnley
English Heritage 2001
Power of Place: The Future of the Historic Environment, London
Field, J, 1972
English Field Names, Newton Abbot
Heighway C 1992
Specimen Urban Assessment of Tetbury, Gloucestershire, in Darvill, TC, Monuments Protection Programme: Urban Areas Manual, 1, 179-208, London
Kirk, GE, nd
Some documents on Barnoldswick Manor Court of Probate, rebound article, BL
Lewis, ER, 1893
History of the Bethesda Baptist Chapel, Barnoldswick, Yorkshire, Cwmavon
McNulty, J, 1933
The Chartulary of the Cistercian Abbey of St Mary of Salley in Craven, Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 87
Pigot J 1834
National Commercial Directory of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, London
Platt, C, 1969
The Monastic Grange in Medieval England
Savage, JL, nd
A History of Barnoldswick, Barnoldswick
Shaw, RC, 1956
The Royal Forest of Lancaster, Preston
Smith, AH, 1961
The Place-Names of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 6, Enlgish Place-Names Society
Warner, JH, 1934
A History of Barnoldswick, Barnoldswick
Whitaker, TD, 1878
The History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven in the County of York, 1, 3rd edition, Skipton
Winnard, E, 1916
History of the Baptist Church, Barnoldswick, 1500-1916, Burnley
Stanley Challenger Graham
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scg1936 at talktalk.net

"Beware of certitude" (Jimmy Reid)
The floggings will continue until morale improves!

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Stanley
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Re: REPORT ON BARLICK BY CARON NEWMAN

Post by Stanley » 10 Feb 2013, 05:44

I noticed this and thought it was worth bumping up....
Stanley Challenger Graham
Stanley's View
scg1936 at talktalk.net

"Beware of certitude" (Jimmy Reid)
The floggings will continue until morale improves!

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