THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

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THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Stanley » 20 Apr 2012, 15:54

THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN
BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH.
[III]
HISTORY IN THE PARISH REGISTERS.
(BY A. H. CLEGG.)
Previous articles appeared in the CRAVEN HERALD on April 26, May 3rd, June 14th and June 21st. [1928], Mr. Clegg here deals with the Parish Registers and the local history they reveal.

The Thornton Parish Registers, which are of parchment, commence in the year 1566, the eighth year of the reign of Elizabeth, and continue to the present day with the exception of the following periods for which the registers are missing —1593 and part of 1594, 1644 to 1683. At the time of the commencement of the first register, Thornton was in the Diocese of York and remained so until 1836, when the Ripon Diocese was formed. It is now in the Bradford Diocese, which was founded in 1919.

The present system of parochial registers commenced in 1538, in which year Thomas Cromwell, favourite of Henry VIII, ordered, as Vicar General, that registers should be kept in each parish for registering baptisms, marriages and burials, but very little notice seems to have been taken of the order by incumbents. The Population abstract of 1801 shows that although there were about 11,000 parishes in England, only 812 registers commenced in 1538. It will be realised, therefore, that our old parish of Thornton is indeed fortunate in possessing registers, which commenced as early as 1566.

The mandate for the keeping of registers was repeated on the accession of Queen Elizabeth in 1588, but, like Cromwell's Order of 1538, this order was not completely observed and in 1597 Elizabeth issued a stringent order that parchment registers should be purchased by each parish and that any entries in older books or registers—which were mostly of paper —should be transcribed from them into the parchment registers and that hence- forward entries should continue to be made therein. Not only so, but it was also foreseen that accident might cause the loss of parish registers, hence it was
ordered that copies of the registers should be sent yearly to the Bishop of the Diocese.

Whether this was done or whether the copies of the registers, which reached the episcopal archives, were always carefully preserved is a moot point. It is however known that diocesan copies of parish registers are only fragments of what they should be.

The oldest Thornton register covers the period 1566 to 1644. From 1566 to 1609 the entries are in English and from 1609 to 1644 in Latin. The whole of the second register from 1683 to 1741 is in Latin. The entries from 1566 to 1598 are not the original entries but were apparently copied in 1598 from older paper registers probably in accord-ance with the above mentioned order of Queen Elizabeth in 1597. There is a memorandum in the register for the year 1593 as follows: —
"Memorandum: That the year of our Lord 1593 is wholie rent out of the paper book out of which this was written and also, a parcell of the year 1594."

The entries for the year 1601 are certified as follows:—
"Per me Hugone Watmough
Rectorem
Henericum Shutte
Curatum
By me Nicolas Baldwyne
By me Christopher Wyndle
Churchwardens."
The register for the ten years 1645 to 1654 are missing because during this period the registers were neglected owing to the Civil War of the time of Charles I. After the entries for the year 1644, which were certified by Geo. Shuttle, Curate, is the following: —
"Memorandum that ye Register was neclected in the time of warr (whilst this place was void) ten years until there came an Act of Parliament for Res— (part of the word is illegible) of such thinges."

The Register covering the period 1655 to 1683 has apparently been lost since 1838 as a Thornton Church Terrier of this date states that it was then in existence. According to this Terrier the Church then possessed "Five parchment registers, the first beginning in 1566 and ending in 1644, wherein is a memorandum that the Register was hereafter neglected for ten years during the Civil War, also one small Quarto annexed to the former beginning 1655 and ending in 1683." It is this small quarto register which is now missing.
In the older registers the entries for any one year are from Lady day, 25 March, to the 25th March following, and not from the 1st January to the 31st December. This old system gives the curious idea that it is possible for a child to be born in December and buried in January of apparently the same year. Many earlier parish registers in addition to recording baptisms, marriages and burials, frequently contain scraps of interesting information such as notes on abnormal weather conditions, storms, visitations of the plague, excommunications, etc., which add to their interest.

The Haworth Parish Registers, for example, contain many such entries, of which the following might be of interest. “1649, 25 February being Monday two suns appeared on either side of the real sun in the firmament which made three Suns in all. Between 9 and 11 seen by the country people assembled at the great fair of cattle at Colne."

Unfortunately, however, in the case of the Thornton Registers, the chroniclers who were responsible for them seldom went beyond their formal duty of record-ing the inevitable baptisms, marriages and burials.

BAPTISMS, MARRIAGES, BURIALS.
The entries for the year 1566—the first year of the registers—consist of 11 baptisms, 4 marriages and seven burials. In the earlier period of the registers the township of the parish, e.g., Thornton, Earby, Kelbrook, or Harden to which a person belonged is not as a rule given, although in the entries of burials for 1602 the township is indicated in some cases; as for example, "Richard Higson, of Earby, Elizabeth Mitchell of Earby; Richard sonne of Henry Baldwyne of Kelbrooke; Nicholas Towne of Thornton; Isabell wiffe of John Wilkinson of Kelbrooke ; Christopher Robinson of Earby ; William Slater of Earby."

After James Allenson, M.A., was inducted in 1708 townships are mentioned and in 1713 he gives still further information, about many persons mentioned by adding, in the case of men, their occupations. The following table shows the average number of baptisms, marriages and burials per year in the parish for certain periods, as far as can be ascertained from the registers: —
Period Baptisms Marriages Burials
1566-1600 16 3.4 13.2
1601-1644 18.1 4 13
1683-1700 15 3.3 13.2
1700-1750 18 4.6 14.3
1751-1800 27 8 18.4

These figures would seem to indicate that for a period of nearly 200 years, that is, from 1566 to 1750, there was little variation in the population of the parish. During the half-century, 1751 to 1800, the figures indicate that there was a definite increase in the population. In 1743, according to a return made to Archbishop Herring, by the then Rector of Thornton, the Rev. H. Richardson, M.A., there were in the parish 148 families. Reckoning on the basis of an average of five to a family the population was probably round about 740. The population in 1801 was 1,202 persons.

During the first period given, that is from 1566 to 1600, the years during which there were the greatest numbers of baptisms and burials were 1584 to 1588. During these five years the number of baptisms were five above the average and burials ten above the average for the whole period. During the period 1601 to 1644 the greatest number of baptisms were in 1620 and 1643, and the greatest number of burials in 1602 and 1643. Between 1701 and 1750 there were most baptisms in 1713, 1715, 1717 and 1750 and most burials in 1719, 1733, 1746 and 1750. In the last period 1751-1800 baptisms were above the average in the years 1766, 1780, 1787, 1796 and 1799 and burials above the average in the years 1763, 1782 and 1798. In the latter year the burials were 32 above the aver-age, but there is nothing in the register to indicate the reason. In 1715 there were 29 baptisms—11 from Thornton, 9 from Earby, 7 from Kelbrook and 2 from Harden.

In 1750, of the 27 baptisms 4 were from Thornton, 8 from Earby and 6 from Kelbrook. Of the 21 burials in this year 2 were from Thornton, 6 from Earby and 9 from Kelbrook and Harden. In 1800 there were 34 baptisms, 14 from Thornton, 10 from Earby and 10 from Kelbrook; and 23 burials: 8 from Thornton, 8 from Earby and 7 from Kelbrook.

PARISH OCCUPATIONS.
As stated, from 1713 the occupations of the men mentioned in the registers are given. It is possible therefore to glean some interesting information regard-ing the trades and occupations of the people in the parish two centuries ago. It is to be remembered, however, that in those days when roads were bad and people seldom ventured far beyond the confines of their own parish, that the parish would be to a large extent a self-contained community and would provide largely for its own needs. Of necessity the skilled craftsmen, artisans, husband-men and other workers had to supply most of the needs and wants of the in-habitants of the parish. There were many trades and occupations.

The following are some of the occupations and trades recorded in Latin in the registers for the early part of the 18th century :—Yeoman, a man who owned the land he farmed; agricola, husbandman; parmifici, cloth worker ; sutor, cobbler or shoemaker; fabri, a smith; fullonis, a fuller of cloth; sartoris, a tailor; lanius, butcher; faber lignarii, carpenter or woodworker; calcearii, a limeworker; pectinarii lanini, woolcomber; lapidarius, quarryman; panicius, baker; candelarii, chandler or candlemaker; lanii pec-tinarii, woolcomber; panificus lintri, linen cloth worker; faber, blacksmith; textor, weaver; fabri ferraii, shoeing smith; ludimagister, schoolmaster; generosis, gentleman.

This list, which is not exhaustive, shows that the parish was capable of supplying all that was necessary for carrying on the life and work of the community. The mention of limestone workers indicates that limestone was being quarried at Thornton even in those days and was probably largely used to improve the fertility of the land. The chandler calls to mind the time when tallow candles would be the only means of providing artificial light. The ludimagister was probably the schoolmaster at the old Windle Grammar School at Earby.

Analyses of the occupations of the men mentioned in the registers are given below for the years 1723, 1735, 1750 and 1800.
1723. Yeomen 2, husbandmen 13, clothworker 1, weavers 18, smith 1.
1735. Husbandmen 11, weavers, 10, tailor 1, cloth fuller 2, carpenter 1.
These figures and others for years about the same time seem to indicate that at the beginning of the 18th century the number of people in the parish engaged on the land and in the domestic industry of cloth working were about equal.
1750. Weavers 17, husbandmen 8, labourers 5, smiths 3, yeoman 1, carpenter 1, woolcomber 1, cordwainer 1, butcher 1.
1800. Weavers 30, husbandmen 3, woolcomber 3, hatters 5, labourers 4, farmers 6, joiner 1, tailor 1.
By 1750 the proportion of agricultural workers and textile workers had altered, there being more people engaged in cloth making than on the land; and by 1800 a greater proportion still were engaged in cloth or hatmaking and a less proportion on the land. During the 18th century there was a gradual development of cloth making and similar work and agriculture employed less and less people.

HAT MAKING.
It will be noted above that five hatters are mentioned in the registers for the year 1800. An examination of the registers shows that hat-making developed in the parish about the middle of the 18th century and became rather an important local industry especially in Kelbrook. The first entry connected with hat-making is in 1749 in connection with a hatter who lived at the Hague. Later hatters are mentioned who lived at the Hague, (Old) Stone Trough, Tunstead, Bawhead, Scald Bank, Moor Gate, Hard Clough, as well as several who lived in Kelbrook village, three in Earby and one in Thornton.

It is also known that hat-making was carried on at Heads Farm, Wood Ing (now demolished) and other houses. Hat-making seems to have been, concentrated mainly in Kelbrook township, and possibly it was introduced into the parish by way of Foulridge. It has been the privilege of the writer to obtain an interesting description of the process of "hatting" from an old inhabitant of the parish who, when a boy, actually saw the hats being made and who still has in his possession an iron pan which was used in connection with the work. The hats made were felt hats made of felted wool. Felted hats had been known in England since the time of the Norman Conquest in the 11th century.

The hatters first washed the wool until it was beautifully clean and then cut it into short lengths of about half-an-inch. Next, by means of a simple home-made wood instrument the wool was teased until it was as fine as down.
A quantity of this down-like wool sufficient to make one hat was then weighed, and by repeatedly dipping it into boiling water—to which was possibly added a quantity of some acid—and rolling it on boards with a sort of rolling pin, the wool was worked until it was felted and of a uniform thickness and the proper size. The hatters worked round a circular iron pan, about two feet three inches diameter and fifteen inches deep, which contained the boiling water. The pan was built round with stone and a fire placed underneath. Thick wooden boards sloped slightly upwards and outwards from the rim of the pan. The felted wool was then shaped by placing it on a stone block shaped like a modern felt hat with the brim turned down.

Other processes were applied and the hat was then dried. When made the hats were white, but in the finishing process they were dyed. They were sold at about 1s. 6d. to 2s. each.

Most of the hatters sold their hats to a middleman, and the rendezvous of one middleman who purchased many of the hats made in this parish was at Haworth. Occasionally, however, a hatter, dissatisfied with the price offered by the middleman, would refuse his offer and go round the district hawking them himself. In time, competition from machine-made felt hats became so keen that it was unprofitable to make them by hand. As conditions grew worse one enterprising local hatter turned his attention to making wool felted stockings. The stockings would, without doubt, be durable and warm, but his resource did not meet with the success it deserved.

Local hat-making died out and so another skilled domestic industry be-came a thing of the past.

An interesting relic in the form of a hat block of whitish stone, which was used by a local hatter over 100 years ago, is still in the possession of an inhabitant of Kelbrook.

The following, whose names appear in the registers between 1749 and 1812, are shown as hatters: —1749. James Higson, Kelbrook; 1761, John Higson, The Hague; 1780, Henry Lund, Stone Trough; 1782, Matthew Lund, Stone Trough; 1785, Thomas Lund, Kelbrook; Mark Lund, Ball Head; 1788, Robert Parkinson, Kelbrook; 1789, John Peel, Kelbrook; 1790, William Taylor, Earby; 1793, John Whitaker, Stone Trough; 1795, Hartley Hartley, Kelbrook; John Barrett, Scald Bank; 1797, William and John Brigg, Kelbrook, and John Watson, Moor Gate.

OLD LOCAL SURNAMES.
The following surnames are mentioned in the registers during the period 1566 to 1571, that is, over three and a half centuries ago :—Aerton, Accarrenley, Bauldwyne, Bawle, Brown, Brears, Banks, Batty, Carr, Charyar, Cowgill, Craven, Dryer, Dixon, Ellis, Emot, Grandirge, Hartley, Hytchin, Higson, Heber, Hirst, Hargreaves, Jackson, Mytchell, Parker, Rippon, Riddialgh, Robinson. Redman, Swyer, Smyth, Staw, Swynden, Swayne, Slater, Taylor, Towne, Wyndle, Wilcocke, Watson, Willian, Wode, Whythead, Wright. Between 1698 and 1703, that is, nearly a century and a half later, the following surnames recur :—Ayrton, Brown, Cowgill, Craven, Driver, Emmet, Grandorge. Higson, Hartley, Parker, Riddeaugh. Staw, Slater, Smith, Swire, Taylor, Watson, Wright, Windle, and, in addition, the following are recorded :—Atkinson, Armistead, Boulton, Barrit, Barrett, Dodgon, Dodsyon, Edmundson, Flud (also Floodd), Howorth, Halstead, Johnson. Kaye, Kendall, Manknowllds, Morwill, Polard, Pate, Robert, Skakelton, Spencer, Sharp, Turner, Tillotson, Tonge, Wane (also Waune and Wawne), Wilkinson, Whitwham, Wilson (Willson), Wormall, Wadington.
It will be noted that a good proportion of the above surnames survive to the present day in the locality, but many seem to have disappeared.

THE LISTER FAMILY.
The Lister family were connected with Thornton for over 300 years.
In 1556 William Lyster, Esq., became Lord of the Manor. He purchased the manor from Henry, Earl of Rutland, and John Manners, Esq.
The transaction is given as follows in the "Feet of Fines for the County of York" :—"1556-7, 3 and 4 Philip and Mary. Hilary Term. William Lyster, Esq., plaintiff, Henry, Earl of Rutland, and John Manners, Esq., deforciants."
The deforciants transferred the Manor of Thornton-in-Craven, sixty cottages and a watermill, with lands there and in Earby, Kelbroke and Hagh-in-Craven, and the advowson of Thornton Parish Church.
"Fines" were at that time the legal means of transferring property, and the plaintiff was the person to whom the property was to be transferred.

WOOLLEN SHROUDS.
From 1683 to 1688 each entry of burial in the register is followed by the word "Certified* with the date. For example:
Sepulti, 1688.
Christopher Whitwham Apl. 22.
Certified Apl. 22.
This certification is really an interesting link with the history and development of one of our oldest and still one of our most important industries, namely, the woollen industry.

A remarkable enactment was passed in 1687 in the reign of Charles II., the Merry Monarch, that all Englishmen should be buried in a woollen shroud. The enactment was in force from 1678 to 1815, and was intended to stimulate the growth of woollen manufacturing.

In the registers, no particulars other than the certification, are given, but it was the custom of those who were responsible for the burial to take an oath in a form somewhat similar to the following: — "A.B. maketh oath that C.D. of T. lately deceased was not wrapped, wound up or interred in any shirt, sheet or shroud, but what was made of sheep's wool only, according to Act of Parliament in that case provided,"
Witness my hand, A.B.
Sworn in my presence, X.Z."

EXCOMMUNICATION.
Among the entries for 1694 a person who had been excommunicated by the Church is mentioned.
This carries us back to the time when moral and other offences were dealt with by the Church. Such jurisdiction has now practically lapsed and many offences, which during the 17th and 18th centuries would have been presented by the church-wardens at the annual visitation and tried by the Chancellor of the Diocese, are now dealt with by civil courts.

Under certain canonical laws, if the person presented was convicted he was either ordered to perform penance or ex-communicated.

Excommunication was a really serious matter, for it involved various civil dis-abilities. For instance, no excommunicate could bring an action or be a witness. If excommunicate persons did not reform themselves "within three months they were, every six months ensuing to be denounced excommunicate in their Parish Church and the Cathedral Church of the diocese." The denunciation was to be made by the minister at Divine service on the Sabbath.
Persons who were denounced in this way "could not make a will nor be entitled to a Christian burial."

PENANCE.
If the person repented, he or she was assigned a penance which had to be performed according to a regular form or custom. There are no particulars in the Thornton Registers of any penance so performed but a penance was performed in the Parish Church of Burnsall on the 12th July, 1791 in the following manner, and might prove of interest.

"The offender bareheaded, bare-footed and barelegged, having a white sheet wrapped about him from the shoulders to the feet, and a white wand in his hand, immediately after the reading of the gospel should stand upon some form or seat before the pulpit or place where the Minister readeth prayers and say after him a form of confession of the offence with a prayer for forgiveness."
The congregation then repeated with the offender the Lord's Prayer. A certificate that the penance had been performed was then signed by the Minister and churchwardens.

Hundreds of such forms of penance, are preserved in the Archbishop's Registry at York, and probably there are some relating to the parish of Thornton-in-Craven.

AN OLD WILL OF 1582.
The will, dated 1st September, 1582, of the above-mentioned William Lystcr is given in "Yorkshire Deeds" and makes interesting reading. A portion of it is as follows: —
"William Lyster, of Thornton, Esquier, sicke in body, but in whole and perfect remembrance, praysed be God, consider-ing in my mind the surite of deathe and that there is nothing more uncertayne than the daye, houre, and tyme, myndinge by Godes grace and permissione to give and render to God and man that thinge to them belonginge accordinge to the saying of the scripture, "Reddite que sunt Cesaris Cesari, et que sunt Dei De saying of the scripture, “Reddite que sunt Cesaris Cesari, et que sunt Dei Deo," do ordeyne this my testament conteynyge hearin my last will in maner and form followring.
"First and principallie I bequeathe my soule unto Almyghtie God, my oneli saviour and redemer, and my body to be buried in the parishe church of Gisburne by the discrecon of my executours.
"And I will that all maner of duties be fullie given to the churche and all the ministers thereof, and the same to be taken and paide of my whole goodes without anie grudge, accordinge to the lawes of God and the Church of England.
"Unto my son Lawrence Lyster my coal mynes and Silritt pyttes or mynes within the manor or hall mote of Colne in the countie of Lancaster, and all such righte as I have in the coal mynes of Trawden in the countie of Lan-caster ; and all my tables, formes, bed-stockes and brewinge vessel beinge at Thornton, with a third parte of my best beddinge belonge (sic) at Thornton aforesaid or elswhere; and also one salte which my grande father maide, one dosene of my best spones, and one faire dringinge boyle gilte.
"Unto the pourest of the parishe of Thornton fyve marks, to be distributed at the decrecon of the curate their and the churche wardens."
He also left to Bartholomewe Lyster, his son, among other things the corn mill called "Barnoldswickye Mylne."

ENTRIES IN THE REGISTERS.
The following entry occurs among the christenings for 1572 in the Thornton registers;—"Edmund Lyster, son of William Lyster, Esq., 26th Sept."
According to the pedigree of the Lyster family given by Whitaker, this Edmund Lyster became a captain and died in Ireland.
Lawrence Lyster mentioned in the foregoing will eventually succeeded to the manor of Thornton. He married Everilda, the daughter of John Sawyer, of Richmondshire, whose name is among the Recusants in Yorkshire in 1604. His will, dated 20th August, 1609, was proved at York, 9th December, 1609. Three of his children are mentioned in the re-gisters as follows: —
1583. Christening. Jean Lyster, daughter of Lawrence Lyster, Esq. 8 May.
1591. Christening. William Lyster, son of Lawrence Lyster, Esq. 27 Nov.
1602. Nupti. Gylles Parker, gentle-man, and Anne Lyster. 19th October.
Gylles Parker was one of the Parkers of Horrockford, near Clitheroe, and was the last male heir of his line. They had an only son, Nicholas, who died in infancy.
The William Lyster christened in 1591 was heir and on the death of his father in 1609 became Lord of the Manor of Thornton. He was knighted by James I. in 1615, and became M.P. for the borough of East Retford. His daughter, Frances married John Lambert, of Calton, at Thornton, the entry in the register being as follows: —
1639. Nupti: Johannes Lambert et Frances Lister. Sept. 10th.
Other entries relating to the Lyster family are:—
1603. Nupti: John Byram, gentle-man, and Mrs. Ellyn Lister. 27th Jan.
1607, Nupti: Stephang Hamerton and Maria Lyster. 5th October. .
These were both daughters of Lawrence Lyster. John Byram was of Byram Hall, Co. Lancaster, and Stephen Hamer-ton of Hellifield Peel, in Craven. Co. York.

THORNTON AND THE CIVIL WAR.
We now come to the part Thornton played in the great struggle between Charles I. and Parliament.

John Lambert, of Calton, became a famous parliamentary general. From the beginning of the struggle he supported, the parliamentary cause, as did Sir Wm. Lister, M.P., of Thornton, Capt. William Lister, of Thornton, son of Sir William Lister, and Thomas Heber, of Marton.

General Lambert sat in Parliament during the Protectorate, but at the Restoration was exiled, and forfeited his estates in the neighbourhood of Calton. Accord-ing to Whitaker, he died on St. Nicholas Island, in Plymouth Sound, in 1683.

During the Civil War he was for some time in command of the siege of Skipton Castle, which supported the Royalist cause. Eventually, he became Major General of the five Northern Counties, a responsible position, which it has been said he filled with "great wisdom, moderation and justice." His wife was described as "most eloquent and accomplished."

Capt. William Lister, of Thornton, became one of General Fairfax's officers, and was killed in 1642 during a skirmish between Parliamentarians and Royalists at Tadcaster. Fairfax was in command of the Parliamentarians, and in his re-port to Parliament he says: "We took seventeen prisoners in the fight, and on our part we lost six men and Captaine William Lister, a valiant and gallant gentleman, who was shot with a musket bullet in the head.'' He also refers to him as "a religious and resolute, gentleman, whose death is much lamented."

The following entries of soldiers buried are in the Thornton Registers for 1642 and 1643:—
1642. Sepult. Duo milites occisi, Dec. 27.
1642. Sepult. Hargreaves de Stothill, occisus, Dec. 30.
1643. Sepult. Miles, die April 18 (given; as April 16 in Whitaker's).
1643. Sepult. Tredicim milites, die July 26, 1643.
The thirteen soldiers buried on the 26th July were killed in the struggle for Thornton Manor House.
Sir William Lister, M.P., supported the Parliamentary cause, and during July, 1643, his house at Thornton—the old Manor House which was probably situated not far from the present Manor House — was besieged by a party of Royalists from Skipton Castle, under Lord Darcy, and captured. The following month it was re-taken by the Parliamentarians. Soon afterwards it was burnt, along with the barns and stables, by Prince Rupert, and was never re-built. Whitaker states that at the end of the 18th century some men, whilst digging among the ruins that were still lying about, discovered an apartment on the ground floor with the old furniture undisturbed.

In 1646 Sir William received a grant of £1,500 from Parliament for the damage done to his estate and for the loss of his son, Capt. William Lister, mentioned above.

Sir William himself fought at Marston Moor in 1644, and in 1645 commanded the Parliamentary troops in Yorkshire. He died in 1650.

THORNTON AND BARNOLDSWICK RETURNS.
One may fittingly introduce this article by the announcement that Archbishop Herring became Archbishop of York on April 6th, 1743. In preparation for his primary visitation, he sent out a questionnaire consisting of eleven ques-tions to each of the 903 parishes in his diocese which consisted at that time of almost the whole of Yorkshire. No less than 836 out of the 903 parishes made returns, and these are preserved among the muniments of the Archbishop of York at Bishopthorpe.

The returns give a detailed and valuable picture of Church life as it was in 1743. The information is valuable from a social, as well as an ecclesiastical, point of view. There were 711 clergy apart from assistant curates ministering in the 903 parishes.

Questions I. and II. required information regarding the population of the parish, the number and kind of dissenters in it, their meeting houses and teachers. At that time Halifax was larger than either Leeds or Bradford. Halifax had 6,000 families, Leeds 4,000. Sheffield 2,000, Barnoldswick 200, and Thornton-in-Craven (Thornton, Earby and Kelbrook) 148 families. Estimating an average of five to a family, the population of Barnoldswick was 1,000 and Thornton 740.

DISSENTERS.
The dissenters mentioned in the returns were Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Independents. Baptist, Society of Friends (Quakers), Moravians and Methodists. The Roman Catholics were mentioned in 262 returns, but in most cases they were few; that is, only one or two families in a parish.

In only 59 parishes were there regular congregations and they had 36 chapels or places of worship. In only two cases is there any evidence of open hostility on the part of the incumbent to his Roman Catholic parishioners and one of these was Broughton-in-Craven. There was probably reticence on the part of Roman Catholics, as penal laws could be invoked against them, while no penal laws could be invoked against other dissenters.

Presbyterians were mentioned in 205 parishes. They had 70 chapels,, four of which were in Haworth. Independents were rarer, being mentioned in only 24 returns, while Baptists were mentioned in 62 returns with 18 chapels, two being in Kildwick-in-Craven.

By far the most numerous of the dissenters were the Society of Friends, who are reported in 310 parishes. They had 107 meeting houses, one being at Barnoldswick and one at Salterforth. Moravians were very few, being reported in four parishes only.

Methodists are mentioned in 22 returns, with 22 meeting-houses. Methodist "teachers" mentioned include such well-known names as John and Charles Wesley and John Nelson. It must be remembered, however, that in 1743, Methodists were not, strictly speaking, dissenters.

Two interesting facts stand out clearly in the returns, the first being the be-ginning of the Methodist movement, and the second the prevalence of the Society of Friends—in fact, apart from the Society of Friends, there was in 1743 little or no dissent in the country parishes.

SCHOOLS.
Replies to Question III., which sought information regarding public and charity schools, provided information of great interest to educationists. In 266 parishes out of 645 in Yorkshire, there was ap-parently no school and no mention made of any secular teaching. There was a public school in Thornton-in-Craven and in Barnoldswick.

A large number of parishes had small endowments for the Parish Church or for the poor. Apparently, Thornton and Barnoldswick were unfortunate, for they had at that time neither almshouse, hospital nor charitable endowment.

PLURALISM AND NON-RESIDENCE.
Pluralism, that is, the holding of more than one benefice at a time, was one of the evils of Church life at that time. As many as 393 out of 836 parishes mentioned had no resident parson, and the commonest reason for this lack was the possession of another benefice, although in some cases it was due to the smallness of the income.

Out of 711 clergy, 335 were pluralists. The Rector of Thornton possessed another benefice, and the Vicar of Barnoldswick was also Vicar of Bracewell. Pluralism and non-residence necessitated the employment of assistant curates. In a few cases the curate was allowed £40 per annum, probably with the use of the parsonage house, but more commonly it was £20 per annum. The curate at Thornton received £35 per annum.

CHURCH SERVICES.
Churches to the number of 383 had two services—Matins and Evensong— each Lord's Day throughout the year. Most of the others had only one—al-though some of these had two during the summer months. At Thornton, public service was held twice every Sunday, and at Barnoldswick every other Sunday.

On the whole, the returns indicate strongly that the clergy as a body were "exemplary in their lives, diligent in study, kindly in nature and sensible in advice. They gave a willing and helpful hand to their parishioners over the stiles in the path of life." To them was due largely whatever was done in the way of elementary education, and they welcomed cordially the introduction of Sunday Schools. The clergy's failure lay in the fact that they were not superior to their times and they often lacked enthusiasm.

I append exact copies of the Returns of 1743 sent in from the Thornton and Barnoldswick parishes. The Thornton Return is published for the first time, and I am indebted to a kindly East Riding Rector for a copy of it.

Thornton, Craven, 1743.
I. In this parish are 148 Families. Of these 16 are Dissenters, yiz., 8 Quakers and 8 anabaptists.
II. In this Parish there is no licenc'd or other Meeting House, that I can find out. An Anabaptis’d Teacher formerly resorted hither, but has not been in the Parish, of late.
III. There is a public school in our Parish endow’d with Twenty Pounds per Annum, free to the Parish at large; in which, care is taken to instruct children in the Principles of the Christian Religion according to the Doctrine of the Church of England and to bring them duly to Church as the Canon requires.
IV. There is in our Parish no Alms Houses Hospitall or other Charitiable endowment; Neither have Lands or Tenements been left for the repair of our Church, or to any other pious Use.
V. I reside chiefly in Person upon my Cure, and in my Parsonage-House; and when absent from thence, I have the care of another Parish.
VI. In my absence I have a residing Curate duly qualified who lives in my Parsonage-House, and I allow him above Thirty-five Pounds p Annum.
VII. I know of none who come to Church, that are not baptiz'd: or, that being baptiz'd and of a competent Age, are not con-firmed.
VIII. The publick Service is read in our Church twice every Lord's Day.
IX. Children are usually Catechis’d in our Church after Easter, and the Parishioners send their Children and servants to be instructed.
X. The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is administered in our Church Five Times in the year. There are 361 Communicants in the Parish of which few receive, Particularly only 23 last Easter.
XI. Open and timely warning of the Sacrament is given before it is administered: But our Parishioners never send in their Names, as it requir'd, neither has it even been usual here. The Sacrament has been refus'd to none.
I have nothing Particular to give in Answer to the above Enquirys.
I am with due Deference,
Your Grace's most Humble Servant
H: Richardson
Rector a Thornton.
Churchwardens.
Old : New :
John Brown John Brown.
Robert Tasker Robert Taster.
John Willian John Willian

Barnoldswick. Craven, 1743.
I. There may be two hundred familyes and many of them dissenters wholly, or some or more in a family. There are no Papists but Quakers or Anabaptists comonly called, (None bury in separate places except Quakers) one fourth part nearly being dissenters.
II. There is a meeting house at Barnoldswick and another of the Quakers at Salterforth in same parish. They of Barnoldswick refuse Infant Baptism and are called Baptists or by some Anabaptists and Antinomians and are very numerous. Their Teacher is one who dwells in the meeting house, and they weekly assemble if not oftener except when he travels abroad.
III. There is a School at Barnoldswick maintained by the good will of the parishioners and public for all the parish.
The Master teaches twenty or thirty children and is conformable and carefull to bring them duly to church.
IV. We have no alms house Hospitable [sic] etc. in our parish.
V. Barnoldswick peculiar is joyned with Bracewell contiguous unto it; the Minister resides at Bracewell.
VI. There is no Curate besides myself.
VII. There are some who come to Church of whose baptism I am not well assured: but so many as are of competent age I exhort very frequently to be prepared for confirmation.
VIII. The public Service is read every other Lords day and when it is not there, is performed at Bracewell
IX. The children and servants are almost constantly [sic] (? accustom'd) to say their Catechism in the afternoons of each Lords day.
X. The Sacrament of the Lords Supper is administered four times in the year for the most part the number of Communicants are generally near twenty or thirty and near twenty received at Easter last.
XI. I constantly read the exhortation required in the book of Common prayer openly and timely before the administration.
And none have been refused from Communicating.
I submit all to your judgment, and pray for your Grace's health and happiness and remain
Your obedient Servant,
Arthur Tempest.
Instituted: 5 Dec. 1717.
Churchwardens:
Old: James Bullock.
Richard Fort.
Transcribed from the Craven Herald published in 1928 written by A. E. Clegg,
Headmaster of New Road School, Earby.
From a collection of newspaper cuttings made by J. Hartley kindly loaned by Mrs. E. Wilkinson.
JCT
6187 words
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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by HeatherG » 14 Feb 2013, 12:33

My ancestor, William Silverwood Boothman, spent his later years (1875-1878) at Hague House, Thornton in Craven and his son (John William Boothman) seemingly inherited the property as he was there in the 1881 census. Do you know whether Hague House still exists? Next door in 1881 was an 'uninhabited' High Hague Farm. I wondered if perhaps Hague House was built to replace the old farmhouse.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Wendyf » 14 Feb 2013, 14:01

Hague House still exists Heather, it is just off the old road between Foulridge & Kelbrook. I've been trying to find a photo online but this one on geograph is the best that I can come up with. HERE It gives its position on the os map too.
It was a school at one time - we have quite a bit of info about it in the Earby History Society Archives.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by hartley353 » 14 Feb 2013, 16:21

Most strange to log on to day and find a mention of Thornton in craven. last night I was doing a bit of research on the net on Thornton, and found a number of U/Tube clips on thornton rocks. This brought back fond memories of my youth in the fifties, this was one of my favourite places and I always seemed to have the place to myself,with the exception of the jackdaws. The crystal clear waters in the bottom were full of perch and lovely for a swim on a hot day.The quarry top on the woods side would have an abundance of wild strawberries in season,and hazel nuts later on. There was even a secret cave that i never reached the end of before my torch batteries would start to fail. It was evident from the film clips that folk were using the old tunnel to gain access, in the fifties we used to think it was to dangerous to use it has survived well.
My aunt used to work for a family in a large house at the top of the village, i think they were called Morrison,their home was like a mansion to a boy from Barlick they had on orangerie in which grapes were growing and fruit gardens that would keep my aunt jam making, paddocks at the rear with ponies and a boundary of conker trees, treasure to a small boy at that time of year. The beck in the bottom of Thornton would provide minnows that could be used to catch trout in Malham tarn or Coniston lake. At the finish of a long day there was ever the descision to return via Earby turn left, or go right for barnoldswick, turning right meant a stop at the church to check for frogs in the well or swallows nests in the porch. It is ever strange that a few words can turn on a switch in your head and allow the memories to flow.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by HeatherG » 14 Feb 2013, 20:06

Glad to have triggered happy memories Hartley:-)

Wendy - many thanks for the photo and your information about Hague House being used as a school. You say you have details about that in your archives - is it available in the on-line archive? Presumably the school was later than the 1880s when my ancestors were there?

I tried to find the place on Google Street View but without success. However I did see some estate agent boards with the name Boothman so clearly there are still some Boothmans in the area.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Wendyf » 14 Feb 2013, 20:33

It was a school before your Boothmans were there Heather. There is an article by Robert Abel in one of our "Chronicles" from 2003 which I have just found. See "Tunnicliffes Academy" on page 2.
summer_2003.pdf
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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by HeatherG » 14 Feb 2013, 21:54

Brilliant - thanks so much Wendy that is really interesting:-) The earliest reference I have to the property is a record of the birth of Joseph Boothman there in December 1877 so it is possible that the Boothman family took over the lease as soon as it was released in 1876.

The article is entitled Tuncliffe's academy PART 1. Is there a Part 2 in a later issue of the Chronicles?

Also at the end of the piece it mentions that John & Linda Drury, the current owners of Hague house are researching its history. No contact details are given for them but I would be quite happy for you to give them my email address if they are still there and would like to know about the Boothman years there. It is govierh@gmail.com.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Wendyf » 15 Feb 2013, 08:46

The second part of the article follows up the lives of the boys who were at the school in 1871, there is no more about the school itself. I will be in our Heritage Room this morning, so I'll see what else I can dig out!

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by HeatherG » 15 Feb 2013, 16:09

Many thanks Wendy:-)

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by PostmanPete » 16 Feb 2013, 14:16

Here are a couple of photos of Hague House which I took this morning whilst out on delivery.
Hague House 1.jpg
Hague House 2.jpg
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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Stanley » 17 Feb 2013, 05:06

I think I reposted almost all the Mixman articles on the new site. If you put 'mixman' in the site search it chucks up 18 articles. Also worth doing a trawl through the 'research' section of Local History.
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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by HeatherG » 20 Feb 2013, 15:35

Wonderful - many thanks Pete:-)

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by JNS1996 » 26 May 2017, 18:44

hartley353 wrote:
14 Feb 2013, 16:21

My aunt used to work for a family in a large house at the top of the village, i think they were called Morrison,their home was like a mansion to a boy from Barlick they had on orangerie in which grapes were growing and fruit gardens that would keep my aunt jam making, paddocks at the rear with ponies and a boundary of conker trees, treasure to a small boy at that time of year.

Hi Hartley, I live in the house you are referring to. It is now occupied by the Summersgill family and has been for 20 years. :) I think it was previously occupied by a local poet/author called Blake Morrison, and his family.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Wendyf » 26 May 2017, 19:01

Welcome to the site JNS!
The Hartley who posted that message hasn't been around for a few years but many folk will remember Dr Morrison living at your house.

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Re: THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN BYGONE DAYS IN AN ANCIENT PARISH. 03

Post by Stanley » 27 May 2017, 03:19

Nice to see these old posts popping up. I knew Arthur Morrison and Kim well when they lived at the Vicarage. Lots on the site about them.....
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