TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by PanBiker » 13 Dec 2017, 12:35

Stanley wrote:
13 Dec 2017, 04:02
All I can say is that when the old CRT tubes lost calibration it made a mess of the picture!
Indeed, colour TV installation back in the day was not just a case of taking it out of the box and plugging it in. A straightforward installation would take about an hour if everything went well, much longer if it didn't. Main procedures were degaussing the environment, then static and dynamic convergence adjustments.

Lets not forget what we are trying to achieve. As near to perfect alignment of three streams of electrons that are being aimed and fired at 150,000 or so minute tapered holes to strike 400,00 phosphor dots. The beams are swept from top to bottom and side to side across the screen and all must got through the right holes at the right time and hit the right dot. Its all done with extremely high voltage under electromagnetic control. You could learn the mechanics and procedure of colour TV alignment but the true skill was more of an art form.

The receiver was installed in the desired location and then switched on and allowed to warm up for a few minutes. You then had a good look at the picture looking for obvious alignment problems, sizing up the job so to say. You would make a mental note if there were any major problems that you must correct first. Assuming there was nothing major but armed with your initial observations you could then proceed with the installation.

First job was to degauss the screen and the environment if required. The shadowmask within the CRT was only microns thick and could easily be affected by local residual magnetic fields if present. This could be from radiators often installed under the window and fairly close to the TV receiver. Electric storage radiators could be a menace as they had heating coils within unlike a water filled central heating radiator which is just a big chunk of metal. You could get problems when large storage radiators fired up. To mitigate magnetic build up in the shadowmask, the CRT's had degaussing coils fitted around the back of the glass envelope. These coils were energised each time the receiver was powered on from cold and served to rid the shadowmask of residual magnetic fields. They could not cater for external objects that may well be holding a magnetic field. A small hand held degaussing coil was used to rid any local metal objects of residual fields. It was mains operated with a long lead and was about 9" in diameter with a push button switch in the centre to energise the coil. You started the coil with circular motion close to the target object then backed away to the other side of the room. I always did a few passes to ensure that the room was free from residual fields that could affect the next stages of the alignment. Waving an energised coil around near to the TV degaussing other objects could have a detrimental effect on the CRT itself as its internal degaussing cycle had already finished so it was usual to make your last pass on the screen itself.

Next stage was static an dynamic convergence and required the use of a pattern generator. This replaced the broadcast signal and provided various test displays for alignment of the CRT and associated circuitry. You could switch in a pattern of dots, vertical and horizontal lines, cross hatch and chequerboard displays and white screen.

First job was to get the static convergence as near as you could. Static convergence was controlled by circular flat magnetic rings installed at the rear of the deflection coil assembly. The rings were in line with where the electron streams emerged from the guns in the CRT neck and controlled the direction of the streams towards the shadowmask. There was an inherent problem with 90 and 120 degree CR tubes in general in that the front of the screen was curved, not much but it did have a knock on effect on convergence, because of this, any adjustment were best case or as good as you could get it, it was impossible due to the overall design and manufacturing tolerances to achieve perfection. You aimed to get the best alignment covering the largest area outward from the centre of the screen. The magnetic rings were arranged with offset fields so each affected it neighbour, you could adjust for each colour in turn by just driving a single gun using the dot pattern to ensure each was going to the correct location then switch all three on and use the white screen for final adjustment.

All of these adjustments were done from the back of the set so we carried a framed mirror that we could set up in front of the receiver to aid in the adjustments. Hard work reaching round the back and trying to look at the screen on a 26" console job!

Next job was dynamic convergence. This was to cater for the discrepancies at the edges so to say and was controlled electronically with various adjustments available usually on a bespoke panel. Most manufacturers had a printed pictorial overlay that sat above the adjustment potentiometers that indicated which aspect of the convergence it controlled and in which area of the screen. The adjustments were actually controlling additional coils which were integrated into the assembly around the CRT neck. They were also interactive to some degree so it was generally a case of revisiting each in turn to strike a happy medium. This is where the artistic bit comes in. You used the vertical and horizontal line patterns from the generator first then finished with the cross hatch paying particular attention to get the best convergence you could around the edges. The coils acted on the electron streams from the guns further down the CRT around the position where they emerge from the neck into the main envelope of the CRT and could have an interactive effect on the original static convergence so it was a dual process operation to keep checking back to ensure you were not robbing Peter to pay Paul.

Last job was to adjust the white balance and this was best done with the customer in attendance. If you did this unattended you often had to go back. White balance or hue is in the eye of the beholder. Equal drive of red, green and blue will produce white, or thereabouts. Balance should be adjusted to the satisfaction of the customer, they have to sit and watch it and nothing irritates more if they think it is wrong. My mate Colin always used to err on the blue side when he installed, I used to lean slightly towards the red spectrum. If the customer was present you also got the opportunity to show them how to adjust for correct saturation with the user controls. Without this basic info the first job when visiting many sets was to turn the saturation down, colour does not mean full on number 11! They were always surprised to learn that you start with the colour turned off and the set in B&W, adjust the contrast and brightness first for a full range of grey tones then adjust the colour (saturation) control for best skin tone.

If all went to plan the customer ended up with a display that was the best it could be and they knew how to adjust the user controls correctly. As installation engineer you were usually better of by at least one brew and a few biscuits or the odd home made bun. :smile:

Excluding electronic failure you may have to return at some time in the future to repeat degaussing when the internal defence circuitry of the CRT was overwhelmed by vacuuming operations and other electronic interference in the room! Oh and incontinent cats and flying rabbits, but that's another story..... could write book, exploits of TV engineer.. :extrawink:
chinatyke wrote:
13 Dec 2017, 04:33
That brought back memories of my time in quality control at Mullards, Simonstone when colour tv in homes was a new thing and very expensive.


PY500 and PL509, swapped a few of those in my time China. :geek:
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by chinatyke » 13 Dec 2017, 15:30

PY500 and PL509, swapped a few of those in my time China. :geek:

We only made the the cathode ray guns and complete CR tubes at Simonstone, valves like PY500, PL504, 509 etc were made at Mullards Blackburn works. We weren't involved with valves, just the tubes. I can't remember where the shadow masks were made. I could set up and test the ancient magnetic focussed 14" tubes because we maintained production of a few for warranty replacements. The 25" & 26" tubes weighed a lot in those days, unlike the flat screen LED TVs of today which don't seem to have anything inside them! A 25" colour tube cost around £90 in those days and a brand new Mini car cost around £500. We also obtained a computer (calculator) which could be programmed with about 100 mathematical algorithms and ran overnight and you got the answer in the morning. It cost £2000 and was half the size of a desk and about 12" deep. Haven't things changed for the better?

Years later, when I was working at the chemical works, I walked into one of the plant control rooms one night wearing nitrile gloves and waved my hands in front of one of the colour monitors. The colours went haywire and the operator jumped up in amazement. I was having trouble keeping my face straight so I went out of the room. When I came back the operator was waving his hands about without any effect. I told him he must wear gloves and rub his hair but not everyone had the right electric charge in their hair. He tried his hardest but still no effect. Of course, I had put a magnet in my glove. :biggrin2: We had to degauss that monitor too!

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 14 Dec 2017, 03:50

"you start with the colour turned off and the set in B&W,"
When I bought my mother her first colour TV she still watched films in B&W. She said the endings were better.....
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 14 Dec 2017, 12:14

I often find black & white photos more pleasing than colour ones - the colour distracts from the shape and form of the content. LINK

Nevertheless, colour has its uses, especially in graphical rendering of data...
`How Greenland would look without its ice sheet' LINK

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by PanBiker » 14 Dec 2017, 15:41

It works the other way as well:

Colourised Historical Photographs

Just thought of an issue with degaussing living rooms. I once very nearly dropped a huge clanger when installing a new 22" colour TV to a customers living room. I removed the old Black and White set and replaced with the new kit, got all my equipment for alignment sorted ready for the installation. The room had a quite large Economy 7 storage radiator in the room and I set up the degaussing kit ready to clear the room. The corner of the room where the set was had its original shelved alcove with fitted drawers and shelves above which had been modified with a hinged smoked glass panel. I was just about to press the button to fire up the degauss coil when I also noticed the small expensive induction speakers mounted on wall brackets.I could not see any obvious Hi Fi system in the room, but bethought myself to see what was behind the smoked glass door. Good job I did it was hiding a professional upright 10" Teac reel to reel tape recorder! I had a quick shufty in the drawers below and found about 50 recorded and annotated tapes all nicely indexed and stored in alphabetical order. I could have wiped the lot if I hadn't looked. :sad:
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 15 Dec 2017, 04:03

In the early days of colour photography the saying was "There are two kinds of images, good ones and colour!".
However things have changed. One of my mates in California, Larry Scher, does platinum prints to exhibition quality. Here's one of them. I think you'll see the difference.

Image
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 15 Dec 2017, 10:39

`The planet’s largest landslides happen on submarine volcanoes'
Press release from the UK National Oceanography Centre (NOC), 11 December 2017

Large volume submarine landslides, triggered by the inception and growth of submarine volcanos, represent among the largest mass movements of sediment on Earth’s surface. This is according to research published in Nature Communications by scientists at the National Oceanography Centre. These landslides could potentially cause tsunamis, and represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted for marine hazard.

Landslides on volcanic islands above the sea have been studied for decades. Yet, by studying a 43 million-year record of submarine landslide deposits from sediment cores, this research reveals that submarine volcanism can generate landslides many times larger than those recorded above the sea. In the Canary Islands these landslides were commonly 100-150 km3, but could be up to 900 km3. A landslide that size would contain enough sediment to bury the Greater London area to a depth far greater than the height of the Shard.

Lead author, Dr James Hunt from the National Oceanography Centre, said “What is really key here is that submarine volcanic landslides can be so much larger than their better studied counterparts above the sea. However, the depth these landslides happen at reduces their potential to generate a tsunami. The evidence also suggests they generally occur in many stages, which reduces this potential further. Still, this research is an important part of helping to better understand a phenomena that could potentially affect countless island archipelagos and seamount chains.”

Deposits from past submarine slides also reveal new insights into the development of volcanic islands as they grow under the sea. Magma rising under submarine volcanoes as the grow causes the seafloor and ocean crust to dome, triggering landsides. This study suggests that the slides happen at every stage of a volcanoes growth. Therefore they provide important information about the evolutionary timing of submarine volcanoes, from inception through to emergence above the sea as they become volcanic islands.

This research is based on cores taken by the Ocean Drilling Programme (ODP). The cores provided evidence for 43 million-years of past submarine landslides in the Canary Islands, making it the longest unbroken landslide record to date. The drill cores not only contain landslide deposits, known as turbidites, but also a continuous record of the background sediment that can be used to accurately date the turbidites. Additionally, geochemical tests enabled scientists to trace which Canary island the landslide came from, and so when each islands began to grow and eventually emerge above sea-level.

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 16 Dec 2017, 04:54

Fascinating stuff Tiz and I seem to remember seeing a report on this before somewhere.
On a similar subject, Arthur C Clarke's accounts of the effects of vulcanism and planet development in the 2001 series was fascinating and is fresh in my mind. This research is very closely related.
One thing that fascinates me is that similar things are happening all the time on the nano level!
See THIS for a BBC report of the interesting asteroid that has entered or galaxy.....
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by plaques » 16 Dec 2017, 08:56

I noticed the caption on the image says' Artwork: Observations of 'Oumuamua noted its unusual elongated shape'. I thought at the time when I saw it 'this is a damned good picture' must have been taken by an astronaut on his mobile phone, then I saw the Artwork bit. Fake news has moved into space. Watch out for a picture of Santa Claus any time soon.

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 16 Dec 2017, 12:27

Some think it was a submarine landslide on the edge of the continental shelf that sent a tsunami up the Bristol Channel in the Middle Ages which flooded much of the Somerset and South Wales coastal region. It's easy to imagine this being true if you look at a map of the undersea geography beyond the SW of Ireland. The edge of the shelf is gouged out into a huge valley by the flow of water from the Severn estuary and the area must be unstable. I wonder when the next one will occur? :surprised:

Plaques, it all went bad when David Attenborough played with those baby polar bears in a zoo! :smile:

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 17 Dec 2017, 03:35

If the Beaufort Dyke ever becomes unstable that could be interesting! (LINK)
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 17 Dec 2017, 10:06

It's already unstable. As early as 1900 geological surveyors referred to its `travelling sands', sediment shifted by the ultra strong currents in the Dyke. The sea floor is being scoured and shifted so it makes you wonder how far the munitions have been scattered by now.

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 18 Dec 2017, 05:19

:good:
At least we are keeping an eye on it!
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by plaques » 27 Dec 2017, 09:46

Mathematicians predicting a mini ice age by 2030. Link. Changes in the Sun's magnetic field could be indicative of lower temperature on Earth. Temperatures could start dropping by 2021, I knew Brexit could have wide ranging affects but never expected an ice age. The prediction is based on a correlation of low magnetic waves activity on the Sun and low temperatures on Earth. Personally being totally baffled by magnetism, a field, quantum particle or string, 2030 is too far away to be of any interest to me so I'll just put it with all the other Nostradamus type predictions that we get at this time of year.

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 27 Dec 2017, 10:11

This story has been going around for years. The lead researcher is a climate change denier, but even she says she isn't claiming a `mini ice age'. It's the news media again, misleading us in the interest of greater sales or viewings. See this Washington Post article from 2015: LINK

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 28 Dec 2017, 04:01

Chelsea Harvey reads like a well-balanced lady..... Funny how pronouncements from climate change deniers always sound abrasive.....As for reports in the Daily Mail et al..... they are ludicrous! They think we are too thick to realise it is click bait to sell more copies.
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 28 Dec 2017, 10:09

Rather like the Daily Express front page this year that ran something like this: `THIS IS NOT A HOAX. An asteroid will destroy life on Earth in June'. In the latest issue of Popular Astronomy magazine there's an article showing that front page, and below it they've got the caption: `Did you notice the earth being destroyed in June?'

Mind you, there was a near miss by a big one in August but the Daily Express didn't warn us of that one. No-one warned us because our monitoring is not yet sophisticated enough to detect all such `near Earth objects' about to pass close. This one came past at one-third of the distance from the Earth to the Moon and was 50% bigger than the 1908 Tunguska meteorite that flattened a lot of Siberian forest. Don't worry, the monitoring methods are improving quickly as is the planning for how to nudge them onto a different course.

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 29 Dec 2017, 04:45

Not much point worrying anyway.... it could happen at any time and we'd be helpless if it was a big one.
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 01 Jan 2018, 11:46

`New app developed to locate people in areas without a phone signal' (Press release, 28 December 2017, Asociación RUVID

Researchers of the Universidad de Alicante (UA) have developed new technology that makes it possible to locate people who have suffered an accident in remote locations without a phone signal and where a speedy rescue is essential to save lives. The system can also be used in emergency situations that arise as a result of earthquakes, floods or forest fires, where mobile phone infrastructure is often rendered useless.

“We have designed an application (app) that can be incorporated to any Smartphone and that, without a signal, emits a Wifi signal which in turn acts as a distress beacon over a distance of several kilometers”, explains the creator of the technology and professor at the UA’s Department of Physics, Systems Engineering and Theory of the Signal of the Higher Polytechnic School, José Ángel Berná.

This signal contains the location (coordinates) of the person who has suffered the accident or disappeared and is using the Smartphone emitter, along with a short message that “can be altered depending on the situation, with examples such as ‘I am injured’, ‘I am disorientated’ or ‘I need help’”, specifies Berná.

In order to detect the distress signal, the researcher has also created a light (half a kilo), portable receptor device which rescue teams or mountain shelters could use. This device has a small antenna and connects to the Smartphone of the search party.

When an accident occurs, the victim only has to activate the mobile phone app, which will in turn emit the distress signal periodically – for hours or even days, even if he or she is unconscious – indicating the coordinates of its location.

According to Berná, there have already been tests done on the ground with this innovative system – an operative prototype was developed in early 2016 – with the Special Mountain Intervention Rescue Groups (GREIM) of the Guardia Civil and then with the Maritime Service of the Armed Forces and Maritime Rescue, the results of which were ‘interesting’. Therefore, during the tests performed on ground and sea it was confirmed that the device can pick up the distress signal of the emitting Smartphone up to a distance of two or three kilometers, respectively, although it may be possible to increase its reach.

Search tasks for disappeared or hurt people currently entail ‘a large cost in time and human resources’, explains the professor. On the other hand, Berná explains, the new system developed makes it possible to ‘optimise the search and decrease tracking time’, a vital aspect when taking into account that, ‘in the case of many deceased people, autopsies have revealed that they survived for several hours and did not die instantly, but it had been impossible to locate them on time.’

It also has the added benefit that it does not require visual contact with the victim, because as soon as they can detect a single signal, it will tell them its exact location, even if it lies several kilometers away or it is trapped among the rubble of a collapsed building.

At present “there is no system in the world that uses Wifi signals to geo-locate a Smartphone. There are devices that allow you to detect mobile phone signals from a Smartphone and pinpoint its location through triangulation, but it costs around €80,000 and requires the use of a helicopter”, says José Ángel Berná. However, the system developed in the UA is more economical, “as its receptor has a cost that would allow its commercialisation for approximately €600 if used by a large number of rescue teams”, he adds. LINK

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by PanBiker » 01 Jan 2018, 12:39

That's a very good example of thinking out side of the box. Only downer I can see as presented is that it requires user activation. It would be better if the app could run in the background but I assume they will have already thought of that. Fantastic development anyway as long as you are capable of activation to call the cavalry.
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 02 Jan 2018, 04:24

The electronic equivalent of the shepherd's whistle I always have in my pocket to geo-locate Jack..... It works with London Taxis as well......
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 08 Jan 2018, 16:57

This was mentioned in a recent episode of Radio 4's Inside Science programme. I've seen trehalose described in the US as being used `as a food texturizer and stabilizer in dried foods, frozen foods, nutrition bars, fruit fillings and jams, instant noodles and rice, white chocolate, sugar coating, bakery cream, processed seafood and fruit juices'.
`A Common Sugar Additive Might Be Driving The Rise of One of The Most Aggressive Superbugs ' Trehalose

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 09 Jan 2018, 03:26

And all because a food processor has pushed the available technology too much! They are too clever for their own good. They may have pushed sugar content down and maintained the addictiveness of whatever they are making but in the process have introduced another danger. I hate it!
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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Tizer » 09 Jan 2018, 10:44

Don't worry, your personal intake of trehalose is probably restricted to the small amounts present naturally in many foods. :smile:

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Re: TIZER'S SCIENCE NEWS

Post by Stanley » 10 Jan 2018, 04:02

I realise that Tiz, my nutrition strategy is to distance myself as much as possible from processing and their cunning wheezes! What worries me is the effect on other people who have no idea what is happening to their food. Did you see the report the other day of the top woman chef who has lost her job because she stupidly tweeted that she had 'spiked' a vegetarian's order with animal products? What the processors do is the industrial equivalent of that.
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