The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

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The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

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The History of Earby.
A talk by Clarice Carlisle

Miss Carlisle was a teacher who taught at Alder Hill School, Earby for many years.

Good afternoon ladies.
First I must apologise for not being able to be with you on a previous occasion.
Then perhaps I had better explain how I came to take an interest in local history.

Many years ago during an inspection by H.M.Inspectors, I was taking 11 year olds, following the scheme which had been presented to me, on the British Commonwealth (Australia to be precise). When the lesson was over, the inspector, to my surprise, began to question the class on their village, & naturally, with their minds on distant lands, the answers were anything but enlightening. Turning to me she said “why not start nearer home & teach them about their own surroundings?”
This view having been conveyed to the boss, the outcome was that I was asked to scrap the old scheme and prepare a new one. No amount of arguing was any use. H M I’s must be humoured.

I didn’t know much about the historical background & what is more didn’t know where to find out. It must be elementary because the children were only in their first year at the school. Nevertheless they proved to be an enthusiastic lot of children & helped to collect information from all sources. I visited the library but with very little result. Arthur Mee’s West Riding contributed one paragraph.
Obviously whoever came here on Mee’s behalf had not been impressed, neither were all his facts correct. The grammar school, built in 1594, is 16th centaury not 17th centaury neither at that time was it a dwelling. (Clock now on works at Brown & Pickles. Chapel Sold.).

Next I went to see Mrs. Hartley, widow of Mr. John Hartley and she lent me a scrap book containing cuttings of articles written by Mr. Hartley for the Pioneer or Craven Herald. From these I obtained quite a lot of information & I am grateful to the late Mr. Hartley who must have carried out quite a lot of research. Later I came across, quite by accident, a rough manuscript of a book written by Mr. Lindley, school master in the village from 1885-1920. He took quite an interest in the history of Earby, which, when he came, was of course much smaller than it is now. This proved invaluable. My parents were able to give me help, having been born in 1874 & 1873 respectively. From the Council Offices I obtained old maps, plans, records of population, births, deaths, weather, local government etc. & gradually built up a scheme to last a year. Obviously in the time at my disposal this will have to be a very brief account. Unfortunately very little of this relates to Salterforth, though much of the same conditions probably prevailed.

We know that people lived here in the stone, iron & bronze ages, because from time to time relics of these times are found in the ground. There is also evidence of Roman occupation, though on a small scale. People have tried to excavate camps, though without much success, the most extensive work many years ago at Elslack. Traces of Roman roads can be found – Brogden Lane from Barnoldswick to join the Gisburn – Blacko road. One from Thornton to Booth Bridge, then over the moors, are examples.

The name Earby (originally Eurebi) is probably Danish, Euri meaning a stream, and “by” a common Danish ending, meaning “the village by the stream”. This district was part of the Danelaw which Alfred gave to the Danes so as to keep the southern kingdom free from attack. He was not interested in the north, as it was considered to be rough & uncivilised.

When William the Conqueror conquered Britain in 1066, Yorkshire was the last part of the country to resist, & it wasn’t until 1069 that it was finally subdued & as a punishment the whole of the county from the Humber to the Tees was laid waste; the inhabitants either fled to the mountains of the West or were killed (100,000) are said to have been slaughtered. It was a long time before the ground was tilled again. This part of Craven was given to Norman Roger Porteirri & it is his name which appears in the Domesday book in 1085. The entry, a copy of which can be seen in Whitaker’s History of Craven tells how many carucates of land he owned to be taxed, a cracute being the amount of land a team of oxen could plough in a year. Earby was then part of the Manor of Thornton, and remained for centuries the smaller & less important village. The Manor House was at Thornton, more or less where the farm stands now, & of course the Church was built there in the 13th Century. The Manor House existed until 1644 when it was destroyed by the Royalists under Prince Rupert & never rebuilt. Loyalties in those days were divided, Sir William Lister M.P. who was Lord of the Manor at that time supported the Parliament, while Skipton was a Royalist stronghold. In a skirmish at Thornton soldiers were killed and buried at Thornton and on his way back from Lancashire to Marston Moor the Manor was attacked again and burnt. Later Sir William received compensation from parliament of £1500 for the loss of his property & the loss of his son, killed fighting for Parliament.

Earby remained for many centuaries a small hamlet, the houses mainly on the higher ground, the reason being , because the beck without the present restraining walls would be liable to flood. Thus we find old cottages up Mill Brow, so called because the mill where people took their corn to grind was situated near the waterfall. Also up Stoneybank, Riley Street, Aspen Lane (which is gradually being demolished), Green End. Riley Street was known as Cattlegate, the road by which people drove their cows for free pasturage on the village green. It is now abbreviated to Catgate & is still called so by old residents.

Other cottages were built along the old road by Bawhead. When I was a child we used to play among the ruins of these houses, but nothing remains now. This road came over from Thornton, across a bridge above the Waterfall, into Mill Brow, along Mill Lane, (now impassable) then across Stoney Bank, along by Moor Hall to Kelbrook and on to Foulridge and Colne. The new road was not finished until 1827 and was a turnpike road with tolls at Foulridge and Thornton until 1879. The old milestone in the Park was formally on this old road. Welbury Holgate, who took a great interest in local history, found it forming part of a stile and took it to his garden & attached a sundial to it. Later it was brought down to its present place.

The village green was in the centre of the village as it was then, bounded by the stream, Aspen Lane, Riley Street leading to Green End. In 1681 the White Lion Inn was built on the edge of the green, and would do good business when travelling fairs came or local festivals like May Day were held.

The Bull ring was situated opposite what is now Dr. Morrisons surgery. This was a common sport in early days. A chain was attached to a ring in the ground, connected to a ring in the Bulls nose & then it was set upon by bull dogs which were noted for their powers to hang on. The bull defended itself by butting with its head & kicking. It was argued that the bull must be bated to make the meat more tender to eat.

The old tythe barn where people had to take their contributions of grain, eggs, chickens etc. instead of payment of taxes, was where Earlham Terrace now stands because the ground was known as Thurlham Tythe Barn Croft.

Where Rushton Avenue stands and the waste land opposite was once a lake or pond. – hence local name Tranmire derived from Tarn Mere, – both meaning a pond. No wonder the builders had trouble. The foundations slipped and the row was nicknamed Earthquake Row. – The trouble seems to have been remedied, but the land around is still swampy.

Earby was fortunate to have a school built at a cost of £100 in 1594 by money subscribed by Mr. Robert Windle. He left money invested to yield £20 per year to pay the School Master. Education was not free, so only few children would attend. In fact for a long period it seems to have fallen into disuse, but with the opening of the railway in 1848, and the first factory in 1839, seems to have flourished again. Education became compulsory in 1872 & at that time Riley Street School was opened. Still children had to pay School Pence (in my parent’s time 3d for young children, 4d for older ones). This was quite heavy as they also had to provide their own slates & writing materials. In 1890 School Pence was abolished and School Boards were formed. New Road School was opened in 1896 and was known as the Board School. Since then of course as the population increased other schools were needed – Alder Hill in 1910, Spring Field 1939 and of course you all know what the position is today, only two schools remain in use. Prior to 1872 the majority of children depended on the Sunday Schools to teach them to read and write, but many went through life unable to do either. Today?

At the beginning of the 19th century we know from the record of payments of Poor Relief, that the people in this district were very poor. This was a nationwide problem due to the aftermath of the Napolionic War, but more to the Enclosures Act. Instead of land being common to all, it began to be enclosed & turned into more compact farms, & people who could afford for land, enclosed it with fences and walls. The poor who had hitherto cultivated a strip of land and grazed the odd cow, pigs or poultry on common ground were left destitute & either became labourers or tried to eke a living by hand loom weaving or accepted poor relief.

It was at this time when help was most needed that a family called Bracewell came to Earby. They enlarged a house at the top of what is now New Road (then a private carriageway with gates top and bottom) & built the first cotton mill in 1839 on land where now Prestons garages stand. So people turned from agriculture to industry. Later in 1852 they built Victoria Mill for spinning and weaving and from that time Earby began to grow. Rows of houses were built and many bear dates in the 1880’s and 1890’s when up to 1908 (Brook Shed) all the factories were built and all for manufacture of cotton goods, spinning at first also but later just weaving. All with the exception of Spring Mill stand near the streams because of the necessity for water for the engines which were driven by steam. The population increased by leaps and bounds from about 750 in 1743 to 1500 in 1875 & nearly 6000 in 1909 when the Earby Urban District Council was formed. Until about 1884 the Bracewells virtually controlled Earby. As well as the mills they bought up many farms and were indeed the real squires and looked up to as such for the livelihood of most people depended on them. In 1884 there was a disastrous fire at Victoria Mill and they left to live in America but other people continued the cotton industry. Now of course, other industries have taken over and modernised the old buildings and Earby is no longer purely a cotton town.

Until towards the end of the 18th century, the only church was Thornton Church, but at this time people began to be influenced by the non-conformist movements. John Wesley preached in Colne, but to my knowledge never came to Earby, but is said to have visited the Inghamite Chapel in Salterforth.
People both Methodist and Baptist began to hold services in private houses, but in 1821 the Baptists built a chapel near Jim Lane, (now called Chapel Square). They baptised people in the stream which flowed behind the church. But of course, as the population increased this was too small, so in 1860 the present Chapel was built on part of the village green. The Wesleyans also erected their first chapel in 1821 – a large room over two cottages at Stoopes Hill. Access was by a flight of stone steps at the end of the building. In 1840n it was enlarged and the cottages underneath were utilized and half the upper room became a gallery. By 1861 this had also become too small, so a new chapel was built at a cost of £2000 to accommodate 400 people. The old chapel served as a Sunday school till 1892 when the Wesleyan School was built. These buildings were also part of the old green. The old chapel was converted into 3 cottages which became alms houses. Now all are demolished but the site can still be seen opposite Spring Mill. The social life of the village was centred around the churches. The Church built 1910, before that a tin Church near Armoride.

Bracewells gave money to help build both these churches. They also gave an Institute which was pulled down to make room for the Coronation Hall and Liberal Club (1911) which is now the county library. They provided a cricket field which was between their first mill and the stream. They may have been autocratic, but they were certainly responsible for Earby’s growth. Thornton has remained a small village because apart from the quarry and a bobbin factory at Booth Bridge, no industries were set up there.

In recent years great changes have taken place in the village and our way of life has changed, but whether all for the better is questionable.

Transcribed by John Turner

Earby History Society Archives.

Earby History Notes
From Clarice Carlisle

Earby Historical Society Reference number:- 252 E/--/R


Domesday Book, 1085.
The record in the Domesday Book is in the following terms:-

In Torentune h b Alcolm III car. ad. gld.
In Eurebi h b Alcolm III car. ad. gld.
In alia Eurebi Alcolm II car. 7 vi b.v.
A carucate (car) was, at the time, as much land as one team could plough in the year.
Now just a few words about the origin and meaning of the place names. Eurebi is Scandinavian meaning the 'upper village'. Torentune being the old form of Thornton is derived from ‘the enclosure by the thorn tree'. The earlier versions of Kelbrook were Chelbroc and Kelbroc and the apparent meaning is 'the brook which flows from a spring or boggy place’.
In 1101 Roger de Poictevin revolted and forfeited his estates. He was banished from England and his lands shared between Robert de Rumeli and Alan de Perci,
Thornton Church appears to have been built about 1220 by James Car and parishioners, who contributed their labour.
Taxation Record 1260.
In 1260 in the 44th reign of Henry III, another record was made for taxation purposes:-
Of the lands of Roger de Poicton, one manor in Torentune Alcolm had 3 car, to be taxed.
In these records we find Peter de Perci and William Kyme standing alternately towards each other as Lord and vassal for at that time Percy held of Kyme 1 car. in frand marriage in Thornton and Ilkley immediately whereof 12 make 1 Knights fee and the latter held of the former 2 oxgangs in Thornton of the same fee. Matthew de Kelbroke held 2 oxgangs of the same in Kelbrook and Jeffry, son of William 1 oxgang in Eurebi.
Kirkby's Inquest.
Another inquiry, known as Kirkby's Inquest was made in 1296 when there were in Thornton, Eurebi and Kelbroc 12 plough lands whereof the Church was endowed with 1/2 a plough of land.

Walter de Muncey.
In 1300 Philip de Kyme alienated the manor to Walter de Muncey for £600 and in the following year Muncey obtained a ‘free warren’ for the breeding and preservation of game and fishing rights together with a fair and market at Thornton, namely, a market every Thursday and a fair for five days, namely, on the eve, day and morrow of St. Thomas the Martyr and two days following.
Lord Ros.
In 1316 we find John de Ros as Lord of the Manor, he was the second son of William, Lord Ros died in 1338 and seised of this manor in right of Margaret, his wife, who appears to have been the heiress of de Muncey.
It can be traced through several descendants of this family until the attainder of Thomas, Lord Ros (a zealous Lancastrian) in 1461 when the king granted to John Pilkington, esq. a third part of the manor which Margaret, wife of John, late Lord Ros held in dower and also the other two thirds of the same which Alianore, Dutchess of Somerset, held likewise in dower. Alianore was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick and married, first, Thomas, father of the last Thomas Lord Ros, and secondly, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. Pilkington resided near Sandal Castle.
By Charter dated November 1st, 1477, John Pilkington, granted to the Abbott and convent of Fewntance the advowson and patronage of Thornton Church and by Charter dated July 1st, 1479, Thomas de Swynton, Abbott of Fountains gave to the said Pilklngton, the Grange of Bradley, on condition that if the Abbott and convent should be dispossessed of Thornton Church, then the grant of Bradley should be revoked. This transaction shows that the Abbott to have been aware of the unsecurity of his tenure and well he might have been, for in 1485 the heirs of Lord Ros were restored, the monks rejected and John Darnton the Abbott, entered upon Bradley again.

On August 16th, 1545, Thomas, the first Earl of Rutland and Barson Ros, by will devised inter alia to John Manners, his second son, the Manor with the appurtenances in Thornton and Earby. These included 60 cottages and a water mill and Thornton and lands there and at Earby, Kelbrook and Hague-in-Craven and the advowson of Thornton Church.

It is supposed that John Manners sold the bequest back to his elder brother Henry, 2nd Earl of Rutland who in 1556 alienated it to William Lister.
William Lister's will was dated September 1st,1582, and his son Lawrence succeeded with. William, Lawrence's son succeeded his father in 1609 and was knighted by James I in 1615 and became M.P. for East Retford. His daughter Frances married John Lambert of Calton in 1639.
On the outbreak of the civil war John Lambert became a General for the Parliamentarians whilst Sir William also supported them.
Civil War.
During July 1643 the old Manor House, which was situated not far from the site of the present one, was besieged by a party of Royalist's from Skipton Castle under a Lord Darcy and captured. The following month it was retaken by the Parliamentarians. Soon afterwards it was burnt, along with the barn and stables by Prince Rupert on his way from Lancashire to Marston Moor and never rebuilt (June 1644). It is recorded that at the end the 18th century some men, whilst digging amongst the ruins that were still lying about, discovered an apartment on the ground floor with the old furniture undisturbed.
In 1646 Sir William received a grant of £1,500 from Parliament for the damage done to his estate and for the loss of his son Capt. William Lister. He died in 165O and had fought Parliament troops in Yorkshire.
Anne Lister, the grand daughter of Sir William, married Sir John Kaye, of Woodsome, M.P. for the county of York, who died in 1706, and the estates at Thornton were bequeathed to the Kaye!s by Christopher Lister who died unmarried.
The last Lord of the Manor, John Wilkinson Wasney, died in 1884 having resided at Fence End since his birth there in 1799.

Education, in its earliest stages was mainly confined to the religious orders and the nobility. The education of the common people was brought about by the generosity of the monks and of gentlemen who endowed schools for the benefit of the poor.
Grammar School,
We are singularly fortunate in that the foundation of the first school in the Parish of Thornton was due to the foresight and generosity of such a person. He was Robert Windle, a clergyman, who was born in Thornton, but who had spent the greater part of his life away from his native village. His later education was at the University of Oxford, where he took holy orders, and afterwards settled in Oxfordshire. He became Rector of the church at Tackley in 1556 and later Rector of Chastleton, where he died a few years later.
His will, dated March 25th, 1591, laid down many bequests, and for the purpose of executing his wishes he nominated his brother John, of Thornton, James Mitchell, also of Thornton and his brother-in-law John Dodgson of Gisbourne, to sell his lands of the Nunnery of Arthington (in Wharfdale). These lands were in the tenure of Thomas Briggs, off whom he had bought the lands for £880. These were to be sold within the year of his death and £440 distributed amongst the house holders of Thornton Parish, rich or poor, and the other half to fulfill his will.
This bequest is so unusual that one might suppose, in the absence of other evidence, that it was a legacy to each householder in Thornton. But it appears that it was determined by some arrangement with householders, antecedent to the making of the will.
In a deed of settlement, dated March 28th, 1599, it is clearly shown what had been the object of the benefactor. During his lifetime he had made known his intension to erect a Free Grammar School within the parish, or at least to allow and give a convenient stipend to a schoolmaster for the teaching, instructing and bringing up of youth within the parish, in the manner of a free Grammar School, but was prevented by death from carrying out his purpose. It would appear that the money left to the householders was for this purpose.
Windle's will was proved on February 2nd, 1592-93, in London, but it was afterwards discovered that the bequest was devoid in law as Windle was in joint estate with Henry Mitchell on the lands at Arthington. However, Henry Mitchell, did not wish to take advantage, as survivor, of the lands and he says "out of the love which I bore my uncle, Robert Windle, in his lifetime and godly care which he has to see his last will performed, it resting on him alone and to no other person to do the same, and being well disposed to the inhabitants of Thornton, was wishful to carry out his uncle's intention".
A new endowment was made by deed dated May 13th,1612, that land at Arthington being transferred to Bank Newton and the extent of the new endowment was 120 acres.
William Mitchell of Arthington Grange, by will dated November 27th, 1622, gave to the school £10 towards getting an usher there. The sum was placed in the hands of the churchwardens of Thornton they to let it out yearly and the proceeds of the use of it to be paid to the usher yearly.

So much for the foundation and endowment of the school. But what of its subsequent history.
The first schoolmaster was Richard Bawden who held the post for many years He was succeeded by one Robert Windle who was master there in 1633.
Until 1840 I failed to come across any references to its history but it seems to have suffered the fate of many institutions and fallen into disuse. But, with the introduction of power loom weaving in 1840, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the completion of the road in 1827 and the railway in 1848, a new era of prosperity and expansion opened.

The newly appointed Rector of Thornton, Rev. L. S. Morris, was instrumental in securing the renovation and re-opening of the grammar school. The upper room was dispensed with and the large room provided with modern school furniture and accessories. John Bentley was appointed schoolmaster and in the course of time he was assisted by his son John Thomas and his daughter Ann. He also conducted an evening school for the benefit of those who had not received any daytime education and was assisted by John Singleton.
When John Bentley retired as schoolmaster, the new Rector, Rev. L.S.MORRIS had an extension carried out. The master's house was attached to the school for educational purposes and a new house built for the schoolmaster on the eastern side of the schoolhouse.
Joseph N. Hodgkins became master with the assistance of his wife and pupil teachers and there was room for 81 pupils.
Following the erection of Alder Hill School in 1910, the Grammar School ceased to be used and for a short time was used as a private club until in 193? the Council initiated a scheme whereby it became the house of the public library and children’s clinic.
The income derived from the endowment, along with the use of the building
is invested in a body of trustees. The institution being recognised as a parish charity and the annual income is utilised for the provision of scholarships tenable at Skipton Grammar School and Girls High School and Colne Gramm¬ar School.

Dame School.
An old dame school was conducted by Mrs. Austerberry and her daughter Nellie in their cottage in Water Street. There were two cottages in the block which are now absorbed in a block of lock up shops near the east end corner of Victoria Mill. It was mainly used for young children who were taught to read and write before passing onto the Grammar School and it was regarded as the infant school of the village.
Tunnicliff's Academy.
A Mr. Tunnicliffe had an educational academy at Hague House in Kelbrook, which was part of the old Keighley Grammar School and the boys used to march down from the school to Kelbrook Church every Sunday morning.
Baptist School.
William Wilkinson, the first Baptist minister in Earby started a school in the garret in Gravel Pit Road and also held night classes. The entrance to this room was through the gallery of the adjoining church, which was built in 1821, and was computed to hold 50 persons. Mr. Wilkinson was pastor from 1819 until 1849 and at first was paid £10 per annum which he augmented with his small school fees and hand loom weaving.
When the new Baptist Chapel was built in 1861, the old building was brought into use as a day school between 1861 and 1872, but this career was spasmodic. If the minister was not there, there was just no school.

At the beginning of the 18th Century the predominant industry in the Parish of Thornton was agriculture. But, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution this gradually changed to weaving.

Later in the Century there is evidence of a warehouse at the end of Green End Cottages, for the storage of cloth and yarn. Handloom weavers were accustomed to tramp to this warehouse from miles around with their pieces, returning with their yarn and bobbins. The bobbins, were, in all probability manufactured down at Booth Bridge, where the brothers Henry and Vandeleur Wilkinson carried of the trade and were also noted makers of barrows and agricultural machinery. This bobbin mill seems to have been in existence before 1825. It was later discontinued and the business moved to Heysham. The woven cloth was later conveyed by road to Bradford, Manchester and the Cloth Hall, Colne.

The first true mi11 appears to have been erected at Kelbrook. It was a small mill used for spinning and weaving and run by a water wheel. Its date of erection is uncertain but the old part is shown on the 1825 Thornton Award Map.
Nathan Smallpage & Sons later took over and built a new weaving shed with provision for dyeing the yarn and coloured goods. Again the date is uncertain but it appears to have been between 1852 and 1906.
1911: Taken over by J.J. Duckworth of Nelson and a new weaving shed again added, on the other side of the stream (1912).
-- Springbank Weaving Co, Ltd, took over but ownership remained in the hands of J.J. Duckworth through James Clark Ltd of Nelson.
1940: As a war emergency measure it was taken over by the Admiralty as a storage place and for manufacture of packing cases.
1946: Requisition released and bought by E.S.Sayek Ltd and a new company formed to occupy (Kelbrook Weaving Co).
1839: Erected with loom space for 160 looms. The power being provided by an old fashioned beam engine. Erected by Christopher Bracewell (snr) trading as Christopher Bracewell & Sons. It was a long narrow building with windows at the side and a bell to summon the workers. Soon after it was built the Plug Drawing riots took place and hundreds of people from Lancashire, Colne being an hotbed, besieged the mill and drew the boiler plug.
Ch. Bracewell & Bros. The control having passed into the hands of Christopher Bracewell (jnr), better known as the "Old Master" and his brothers, Edmund, Thomas,and Henry.
1859: Enlarged to hold 260 looms; Ch. Bracewell & Sons. Partnership dissolved on the death of Edmund.
From 1852 onwards the history of the "Old Shed" is incorporated with that of Victoria Mill, but it is interesting to note that it was restarted in 1890 by Henry Bracewell & son and probably pulled down in 1906.

1852: Erected as a large spinning mill with weaving shed adjoining and had room for 600 looms. Run by CH. Bracewell & Bros.
On the death of Edmund the partnership was dissolved and the new firm of CH. Bracewell & Sons retained control, together with the "Old Shed" with 36,000 spindles and 600 looms. They also took over Sough Bridge Mill with 500 looms.
1884; 5th January. Great Fire.
I885: Bracewell regime to an end, due to misfortune, disasters, fires and bad trade. On the removal of Ch. Bracewell to America, Dyson Mallinson succeeded to the ownership of both mills. In May 1880 he had married Bracewells eldest daughter. Firm known as Victoria Spinning and Mfg. Co. Ltd.. A large part was rebuilt and the machinery restarted early in 1885. The top room was used for mule spinning, six long pairs of mules having been installed, while the middle room was used for ring spinning in place of the "throstle" frames.
The bottom storey being used as before,for the initial process.
1889: The business collapsed and permanent stoppage occurred in the first week of July, "Earby Feast". The mill was closed for about 4 years and was eventually purchased by Thompson Bros. of Trafalger Mill, Burnley, being known as the Mill Co. Ltd. George Proctor, chartered accountant of Burnley, was Secretary and eventually acquired ownership. The mill was divided into 5 sections.

1892: Spinning Mill run by Thompson's but after a few years was purchased by Sam Dugdale of Luddeden Foot.
1892: Moorhouse and Hartley. (James Moorhouse and Thomas Henry Hartley).
1895: Earby Mfg. Co. Ltd. formed and took over new section 420 looms.
1896: Charles Shuttleworth & Co. Ltd. formed and occupy space at south end where a portion of the original weaving shed had been extended.
1896: A.J.Birley Ltd took over portion after disastrous fire at Burnley which J.W.Thompson intended to occupy.
1901: Victoria Shed built on the old cricket field and A.J.Birley moved there to with space for 850 looms.
1902: Partnership between Moorhouse and Hartley dissolved. Hartley retained business and Moorhouse started on his own at Barnoldswick.
1905: Strike for several months over recognition of Union.
1908: Hartley to Brook Shed. The plant and looms being taken over by the Seal Mfg. Co.Ltd.
1909: A new company, the Walden Spinning Go. Ltd., taken over from Sam Dugdale and soon after a strike of mule spinners occurred (1910) lasting 54 weeks, collapsing in April, 1910. Work was resumed on the 4th April but on a non-paying basis and in 1911 the machinery was stopped permanently and the premises vacated.
1911: The spinning mill was adapted for weaving and warehouse space. The Earby Mfg. Co. increasing their space to 680 looms. Messrs. James Stockdale and W. Jones took over the middle room with 280 looms. Seal Mfg. Co, Ltd. Having 420 looms.
1914: After a few years Stockdale and Jones ceased and the Coates Mfg. Co.Ltd. took over business.
1923: Seal Mfg. Co. ceased and Coates took over.
1927: Coates Mfg. Co. ceased and space empty until 1939.
1934: A.J,Birley transfer to Albion Mill. Space empty until 1937.
1934: Victoria Mfg. Co. Ltd. (Earby) take over part of space formerly occupied by Coates Mfg Co. (Self Help).
1937: Victoria Shed taken over by Johnsons Fabrics Ltd. who also bought out the Victoria Mfg. Co. whose looms were transferred to Victoria Shed as a nucleus for the new company.
1938: Johnsons Fabrics occupy Middle room (Ballroom) about this time.
1940: As a war emergency measure the space left empty was used for the storage of flour and shell cases, together with ballroom.
1946: Johnsons return to ballroom.
1947: Newbridge Mill Ltd. take over bottom and top rooms vacated by Victoria Mfg. Co. in 1937.
1885: Erected by William Gill with 600 looms and a two-storey warehouse. First tenants - James Clegg and Henry Parkinson with 300 looms and Bailey, Watson and Berry (Chas. W. Bailey, James S. Watson and William N. Berry). Watson had been weaving manager at Sough Bridge and Berry associated with the designing dept at Dotcliffe (Smallpages).
I895: Bailey, Watson and Berry move to Spring Mill. Clegg and Parkinson back to Nelson. Another firm, founded by Robert Nutter took over the whole of the weaving space. With him were associated Bracewell and William Hartley (Nutter and Hartley).
1908: Hartley to Brook Shed. R. Nutter & Co. Ltd.
1920: Extended second time by Nutters who took over the ownership (took in space occupied by the old tin (mission) church). It was extended the first time by John Delaney who succeeded William Gill as owner, before 1907 (old limestone or gasbag portion abutting onto School Causeway).
1932: R. Nutter and Co. Ltd. ceased.
1934: Purchased by Nutter Bros. of Barnoldswick.
1940: Taken over by Rover Co. Ltd. for aircraft production.
1946: Vacated by Rover Co. Ltd. and taken over by Armoride Ltd, as leather cloth manufacturers and extended (brick portion) towards sewage works.

1890: Erected by Earby Shed Co. Ltd, who sold it in 1904 to the Albion Shed Co Ltd. Henry Bracewell & Son, of Airebank Mills, Gargrave were the first tenants 1300 looms.
1903: Ceased operations. Serious stoppage for several months.
1904: Restarted. Albion Shed Co. Ltd formed. A.J. Birley Ltd (360) looms, J. S. Watson & Sons Ltd (396 looms) and Nutter & Turner (264 looms). Watson came from Spring Mill whilst Eli Nutter (Robert Nutter's son) and James Turner entered into partnership having 280 looms at Sough Bridge.
1920: Nutter and Turner ceased and absorbed by R. Nutter & Co.Ltd.
1930: J.S. Watson & Son Ltd. ceased but Stanley Watson re-formed as J. S. Watson & Co. carried on.
1932: R. Nutter & Co. ceased.
1933: J.S.Watson & Co move to Brook Shed to take place vacated by T.H.Hartley & Sons Ltd.
1934: A.J.Birley Ltd transfer from Victoria Shed and occupy all the mill.
1895: Erected by John Bailey. First tenants Bailey, Watson & Berry from Grove Mill.
1903: Partnership dissolved. Watson to Albion Mill. Mill divided into two sections with Bailey as owner, C.W.Bailey Ltd. W.N. Berry & Sons (coloured).
1912: Sept. Holidays. Two storey warehouse burnt down and rebuilt as single storey.
Bailey gave Berry notice to increase rent whereupon Berry projected a mill at Rostle Top, above the church. The first by the Rostle Top Shed Co. Ltd., but the 1914-18 war broke out and plans were dropped.
1930: Berry to Fouldridge.
1940: Taken over by Board of Trade as Tobacco Store. Bailey stored looms and moved to Brook Shed.
1946: C.W.Bailey moved back.

Elslack Fort – (Romano British) 70 A.D. extended 210 A.D. and scheduled for protection by Yorkshire Archaeological Society (1909 Y.R.A.C.)
Lords Of The Manor
Borrow a copy of Whitaker's "History of Craven" from the library

During the Middle Ages and largely up to the middle of the 18th century, the method of agriculture was based on the "open fields" system. Under this System the Manor contained three arable fields each field being divided into acre or half acre and strips separated from each other by "baulks" of unploughed land. The strips held by one person were not together but scattered in different parts of the field or fields. Much agricultural work such as ploughing, sowing and reaping was carried out on a communal basis. Each year one of the fields was left fallow.
Commons, moors and woodlands generally surrounded the open field.
The system was necessarily wasteful and the Enclosure movement of the 18th Century was brought about largely through the desire to replace this old unsatisfactory system, which was holding up agricultural progress, by compact farms and enclosed fields, so that better crops and improved stock could be produced.
Between 1797 and 1820, 1727 Inclosure Acts were passed and the Thornton inclosure Act of 1819 was one.
The duty of carrying out the Act was entrusted to a Commissioner, William Pildington of Hensal who had a land surveyor, Henry Teal of Leeds to assist him and in 1825 the Commissioner made his award.
The size of the parish was 5,436 acres, of which about 1,000 acres was to be enclosed, in effect 969 acres, 1 rood and 7 perches. The award also dealt with public highways, bridle paths and private carriage roads.

1556: Parish registers commenced.
1601: Act passed for appointment of poor law overseers.
1773: Canal completed.
1801: Population of parish 1202.
1819: Thornton Enclosure Act.
1824: Act passed for making and maintaining a turnpike road from Colne Communicating with the Clitheroe/Skipton Road. From the Hare and Hounds Inn at Fouldridge to meet the existing road at Whitegate, Kelbrook. Road diverted, owing to lack of funds and dispute, at place where the old Conservative Club stands to the bottom of Waterloo Road.
1825: Thornton Award map.
1827: Application to Commissioners to run coach over road. Toll bars at Fouldridge Church and Thornton.
1834: Poor Law Act.
1837: Skipton Union formed with map and plan of parish.
1838: Kelbrook Church erected.
1848: Railway completed,
1865: East Staincliffe Highways Board formed. Road surveyors at Thornton, Harden and Kelbrook ceased.
1876: Trust wound up.
1879: Ceased to be a Turnpike (1st Nov.)
1894: Skipton R.D.C. formed.
1909: Earby U.D.C. formed.
1918: New Road to Whitegate completed.

In 1698 two houses in Earby occupied by Sarah Coates and Daniel Parder were registered for public worship or meeting places under the Act of Toleration,1689.
The Baptist Church split from Barnoldswick in 1819 and in 1821 a chapel was built in Grelpit and a few years later a house for the Minister was built adjoining the chapel at the entrance to the chapel yard. Rev. Richard Heaton succeeded in 1853, J.M.Ryland in I854, new chapel erected in 1861, W.Osborne in 1863. From 1865 until 1896 no one, then Edward Morgan.
William Crowther bequeathed all his possessions for the conversion of the Methodist Chapel into 3 houses for poor women, with endowment fund.

Cemetery opened in 1887.

Kelbrook Church built and endowed by Miss Currer of Eshton Hall and Consecrated 30th Sept.1839.
Earby Parish Church was erected in 1907 and in 1923 became a separate parish.

In 1939 the Wharfedale Section of the Yorkshire Council resigned and reformed the Airedale and Wharfedale League.
Since then the first team have been members of the Senior League, except for 1942-44, when, owing to travel difficulties during wartime, they temporarily resigned and joined the Craven League. The second team left the League at the end of 1939 and did not resume until 1947. For a few years at the beginning of the war they played friendly matches but lack of players forced their disbandment until 1946 when they joined the Craven League for one season.
1936- 2nd team level with Rawdon at the top of the League. They won the play-off by 3 wickets. Elvin Birch took 5 for 7 including the hat trick against Yeadon whilst at Ilkley they lost by one run. The scores being 108 and 107, five men being out for 4 runs. They scored 204 against Horsforth and toppled Guisely out for 25.
Silsden 3 for 4 and also 6 for 12 in the same match,
Silsden 6 for 23
Burley 5 for 25
Yeadon 6 for 55
Yeadon 4 for 25

This document has been transcribed 30-Dec-06, from a photocopied typed document held by Earby History Society:
251 E/-/G Earby History, notes prepared by Clarice Carlisle

I have corrected some obvious typo’s, but otherwise the text remains as is.
Miss Carlisle was a teacher who taught at Alder Hill School, Earby for many years. I doubt that this is all original research done by Miss Carlisle.

John Turner
June 17, 2007
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

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Thanks for another splendid post John.
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

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Good post John. I used to repair Miss Carlisle's TV when I worked in Earby. She lived on Salterforth Lane halfway up the hill to the ranch.
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

Post by chinatyke »

Nice to read about the village where I was born. Thank you.

Interesting to note one description says Eurebi means the village by the stream (from Danish) whilst another says it means Upper Village (Scandinavian).

Can anyone clarify this?
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

Post by Mixman2019 »

February 1930

“In the Days of Long Ago”

An Informative Earby Lecture.

An informative address, on “Landmarks in the History of an Ancient Parish,” was given by Mr. A.H. Clegg, headmaster of the New Road School, at the weekly meeting of the Earby Wesley Guild on Tuesday evening. Mr J. Hartley presided, and the lecturer dealt specifically with the Thornton Parish.

Four Townships
The old parish of Thornton-in-Craven consisted of four townships, said Mr.Clegg. They were Thornton, Earby, Kelbrook & Harden. The manor of Thornton-in-Craven is mentioned in the Doomsday Book compiled by William the Conqueror, about the year 1086 A.D., and the entries relate to the lands of William de Perci and Roger the Poictevin. Craven is described as Crave, Thornton as Torentun, Earby as Eurebi, and Kelbrook as Chelbroc. In 1101,
Roger de Poictevin joined in a rebellion and forfeited all his estates. He was banished from England, and Robert de Rumeli and Alan de Perci shared the lands, which he had held in Craven.

The Thornton manor, continued the speaker, had always consisted of three manors, but from the earliest times they had never been separated. The families who had held the manor included the following: The Percy family,
who occupied it for two centuries: the Kyme family who did not hold it for long, and who sold it in 1300 to Walter de Muncey for £600. Muncey then held it for 16 years and then the manor passed to the Earls of Roos. They were in
possesion from 1316 to 1556, a period of 240 years. In 1556 one of the Roos family alienated the manor to William Lister, and the family of the latter held it for over a century. When Anne Lister married Sir John Kaye in 1700,
the manor passed to the Kaye family, and so recent as 1871, Sir John Pepys Lister-Kaye of Denby Grange, was Lord of the Manor.

Place Names
The place-names connected with the manor make an interesting study, said Mr Clegg. The old forms of Earby as given in the Domesday Book are: Euribi, Everby, and Eureby. The origin is Scandanavian and the meaning is “the upper village.”

Torentun and Thorntun were the old forms of Thornton, and the meaning is given as “the enclosure by the thorn tree.” The early variations of Kelbrook were Chelbroc, Kelebroc, and Kelbroc, and the apparent meaning of the name is “the brook which flows from a spring or boggy place.”

Harden, said the speaker, might be old English, meaning “in the grey valley”; or “the place on the slope.”

Hague or Haigh means “an enclosure,” but it may also mean an “enclosed hunting ground.”

Dealing with the geographical conditions, Mr. Clegg said the manor was more wooded in early times than to-day. Possibly, he suggested, a large portion of the low-lying parts was waste, owing to the swamping conditions. The drainage of Kelbrook Bottoms under the low-lying parts, was not carried out until 1826.

The number of houses would be very small in those far off days compared with the present day, and the population even as late as 1743, was not more than 750. In olden days the main road from Colne to Skipton was probably over Thornton Moor, dropping down into Skipton via Carleton. The present main road from Colne to Skipton has probably existed from time immemorial, as it is shown as a road on Jeffery’s map of Yorkshire produced in 1771. This, he added, was the first reliable map of the country.

The Stocks
Speaking of the old forms of punishment, the lecturer said that the stocks and the whipping post were two common instruments for the punishment of minor offenses. The remains of the old stocks can still be seen at Thornton, and they were used down to 1831. Extracts from the Churchwardens’ Account dated 1814-1848 show that payments were made to Thomas Hartley “for attending to two persons in the stocks.” Mention is also made in the same record of a payment of 14s. “for seven summonses for Sabbath breakers.”
Giving items of interest from old documents, the speaker observed that apparently the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, held lands in the parish at one time. Their revenue account for the year 1542 shows the following:
“Irbye (Earby) 11d. from Lord Roos; 4d. from Robert Blakeley.” In a list of Roman Catholics compiled in York in the year 1604, two persons from Thornton parish were included. One was Everid, wife of Lawrence Lister, and the other was Richard Bawden, a schoolmaster, who was probably at the old Windle Grammer School [Earby].

Local Government
Old forms of local government were an interesting feature. All through the Middle Ages, and until the nineteenth century, the Parish Meeting or Vestry played a very important part in the life of the parish. The business of the Vestry was not confined to matters affecting the Church. In those days, the distinction between things secular and things ecclesiastical did not exist. The Vestry dealt with poor relief, roads, rates, etc. It carried out the work in the parish which is now carried out by the Board of Guardians, Urban District Council, and County Council. Probably its most important function was the dispensation of poor relief. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, there was a great deal of poverty and distress in the parish. The average amount disbursed in poor relief from 1816 to 1837 was £1.093 per year, although the population at that time was only 1,200. In 1826, the worst year of the distressed period, 400 persons in the parish were relieved to the extent of £2,830. These were staggering figures, commented Mr. Clegg. In that year, the widespread poverty drove the people to despair, and they became reckless. They joined along with other reckless persons from neighbouring parishes and organised a riot. The rioters proceeded to Gargrave, where they destroyed the looms in the mill belonging to a Mr. Mason. As a result of this the Overseers of the parish had to pay £9 14s. 9d. as “a proportionate share for the power looms damaged.”

Church Terriers.
Included in the old registers, proceeded Mr. Clegg, were many Church Terriers, which were documents drawn up by the Churchwardens specifying everything belonging to the Church. This brought one to two interesting points: Tithes, and the tithe barn. There was a tithe barn in the parish until about 100 years ago. It was mentioned in several of the Terriers and was situated in the Earby Township. The exact location, which he (the speaker) could not discover for some time, is described in a Terrier dated 1786, as follows: “ A little Croft on the back side of the tithe barn in Earby, abutting on John Bagshaw, Esq., on the north and east, on the green to the south and on George Smith’s Croft to the west.” Hence it seemed as if the tithe barn was on the edge of the village green, which was not far from the hall in which he was now speaking. The “White Lion” was also near the green. The Manor Corn Mill was, in all probability, near the waterfall.

Some interesting information had been gathered in the old parish registers, regarding the trades and occupations of the people in the parish two centuries ago. These the speaker dealt with in detail.
Concluding, he referred to the Windle Grammar School, reference to which, he said, could not be omitted. It must have played an important part in the history of the parish. The Church Terrier of 1743 gives the date of the founding of the School as 1594. Until 1840 it was the only seminary in the district. The second school was probably the old Church School built in 1840.

Transcribed from a Local Newspaper, February 1930, written by John Hartley
From a collection of newspaper cuttings made by the author kindly loaned by Mrs.E. Wilkinson.

Transcribed by John Turner
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

Post by Stanley »

John, :good:
China, there are almost always conflicting views about name origins. It is not an exact science.
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Re: The History of Earby by Clarice Carlisle

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